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Types of Radiation: o List the three types of Radiation and describe conditions under which each case occurs. Alpha, Beta, Gamma. Alpha radiation/emission - Alpha particles are the nuclei of a Helium atom 42He. Consisting of two protons and two neutrons, positively charged. The nuclei are ejected from heavy, unstable nuclei so as to remove excess protons and neutrons. However, the formed nuclei may still be radioactive in which even further decay will occur. Alpha emissions occur in nuclei with atomic numbers greater than 83. E.g 23892U ? 42He + 23490Th (both mass and No. of protons are conserved during the reaction) Beta radiation/emission - Beta particles are electrons (0-1e) that have been released from the nucleus of a radioactive atom when a neutron decays into a proton and electron. Beta decay/emission happens when the neutron to proton ratio is too high due to excess neutrons. 10n ? 11p + 0-1e (mass is still conserved as well as number of protons.) Gamma radiation/emission - Gamma ray emission can be found when either alpha or beta decay occurs. Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic rays. Gamma radiation is just the excess energy of the reaction being shed off, gamma rays do not effect mass numbers or atomic numbers. 6027Co ? 6028Ni + 0-1e + y As elements get heavier the ratio of neutrons:protons moves away from being 1:1, Bands of instability surround the band of stability showing where the neutron:proton ratios are either to great or too small, o Discuss the half life of radioactive elements. "The half-life of a radioisotope is the time required for half the atoms in a given sample to undergo radioactive decay; for any particular radioisotope, the half-life is independent of the initial amount of the isotope present" (Conquering Chemistry, HSC Course, 4th Edition, Roland Smith). Transuranic elements: o Define transuranic elements and explain how they are produced. Transuranic Elements - are elements that have been artificially synthesised, and have atomic numbers greater than 92 Neutron Bombardment: Neptunium (Z = 93) can be made in nuclear reactors by neutron bombardment of uranium-238, achieved in 1940 by Glenn Seaborg. 23892U + 10n ? 23992U ? 23993NP + 0-1e Alpha Bombardment - Alpha particles are able to produce transuranic elements. E.g. when plutonium-239 is bombarded with alpha particles an isotope of Curium (Z = 96) is formed. 23994Pu + 42H ? 24296Cm +10n Ion accelerators - To produce elements with higher atomic numbers, the approach of firing accelerated particles into a target is used. The accelerated particles, usually ions produced in a linear accelerator, are fired towards the target element at velocities near the speed of light. Nuclear reactions occur in the target elements nuclei and are then analysed, velocity filters using electrical and magnetic fields separate the products of the reaction and determines their mass. E.g Roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111) was synthesised in 1944 as nickel-64 ions were accelerated towards bismuth-209, Rg was formed and rapidly decayed. 6428Ni + 20983Bi ? 272111Rg + 10n Commercial Radioactive Isotopes: o What are commercial radioisotopes and explain how they are produced Commercial radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) are radioisotopes used for commercial/industrial use such as medicine, e.g. cobalt-60 is used for cancer treatment, created by bombarding cobalt-59 with neutrons as it captures a neutron to become cobalt-60. There are two methods of producing radioisotopes 1) from nuclear reactors 2) in cyclotrons. 1) suitable target nuclei are placed in the reactor and are bombarded with neutrons as reactors contain large sources of neutrons. 2) A cyclotron is used in some medical radioisotope production. Here they are prepared by bombarding a target nucleus with a small positive particle e.g helium nucleus or carbon nucleus. Radioactive Isotopes: o Identify a radioisotope used in industry and one used in medicine, state the use/s of each and explain the use/s in terms of their properties. Medicine: Cobalt-60 is used to treat cancer as the gamma rays that are emitted during its decay are strong enough to penetrate deep into body tissue and attack the cancer cells, it has a suitable half life (4-6 years) which is sufficient for the radiation source to have a reasonable lifetime and short enough that a reasonable intensity of radiation is emitted. Industry- Food irradiation, gamma radiation is used to kill bacteria to sterilise medical supplies, however in more recent years irradiation of food has become a favourable process in which to kill micro-organisms to minimise spoilage and extend shelf life, Australia has only approved of irradiation of herbs, spices and certain herbal infusions (not tea) Food irradiation destroys bacteria that makes food unsafe and shorter freshness which increase wastage. On the other hand, arguments suggest that irradiation does not necessarily kill all bacteria and micro-organisms, as well as killing vitamins, and also the formation of harmful compounds, for these reasons caesium-137 is widely used as its gamma radiation is sufficient enough to destroy bacteria but not enough energy to make the food radioactive, and its half life is reasonably long so as to minimise replacement reducing costs. o Use available evidence to analyse the benefits and problems associated with the use of radioactive isotopes in identified industries and medicine. Benefits- Industry- The benefits of using radio isotopes in industry include, the ability to make monitoring equipment more sensitive than ever before, radioisotopes are now used to detect faults in structures such as buildings where weak spots may cause safety issues, sterilisation of medical supplies and food are now possible and are more efficient and reliable. Benefits-Medicine- radioisotopes have proved to be effective in that they open up a variety of non-invasive diagnostic procedures, organs such as the heart, brain and kidneys can now be examined without surgery, radioisotopes have now allowed the introduction of radiation therapy (radio therapy) which is used to treat forms of cancer, as this has proved to be most effective. Problems-Industry and Medicine, radiation is harmful to humans in any way, therefore many problems arise from the use of radioisotopes in industry and medicine. One example of a problem that exists with the use of radioisotopes is that radiation can cause tissue damage, the effects of this tissue damage can be seen quite quickly showing up as burns on the skin, and nausea, and depending on exposure to the particular types of radiation, death is a factor that can be taken into account, if high exposure has occurred. Cancers can form from prolonged exposure to radiation, the effects of some radiation may not show for many years e.g 10-20 years after exposure. Genetic damage is also a problem that exists with the use of radioisotopes as radiation such as gamma emission is highly ionising and can cause DNA to be altered in such a way that deformities in offspring are an effect of exposure. Safety precautions- Radioactive materials are stored in specific types of shielded containers. Equipment using radiation must be checked to make sure the radiation is only directed to where it is intended for use and not escaping where humans can become exposed. Training of people about the safe handling and use of radioactive materials. Protective clothing must be worn when handling radioactive materials, depending on the type of material, different clothing must be worn to ensure exposure is reduced to its minimum. People working around radioactive substances must wear radiation badges, that record the amount of radiation they have received. The safe storage and disposal of radioactive materials must be carried out in the proper way to avoid environmental damage, accounting of quantities must also be done. Signage of radioactive materials must also be displayed to show the presence of possible radiation where these materials are being used and or stored. Radiation Detection: o Identify three instruments or processes that can be used to detect radiation and explain how each one functions. Radiation Dosage Badges- worn by nuclear industry workers, that detect the amount of cumulated radiation exposure on the person. Many types of radiation badges, in particular are two most commonly used, Film badges and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) Film Badges- These badges measure high-energy beta radiation, gamma radiation and X-radiation. One side of the badge contains a sensitive silver halide emulsion , the other side contains a slow emulsion. Low radiation doses turn the sensitive emulsion black, the slow emulsion remains the same colour. Higher doses turn the slow emulsion side black, these badges are analysed quite regularly to record the doses of radiation. Because alpha radiation is a very low penetrating emission, it is not normally monitored, as it can be stopped by a piece of paper. TLD- Aluminium Oxide or lithium fluoride are able to absorb beta or gamma radiation, this absorbed energy causes electrons to be excited to new energy states where 'trapping centres' trap them, the exposure to radiation is determined by the release of these electrons (laser radiation or heating). The visible photons of light emitted and their energy is related to the ionising radiation doses. Geieger-Muller probe and counter. The GM is used to measure the strength of ionising radiation, beta radiation is readily detected, however other forms of radiation can also be detected that have high ionising energies. Radiation enters the GM through a mica window in one end, argon in the middle of the device is at low pressure acts as an absorbent and when struck by high energy particles causes an electron to be ejected from the gas and are attracted toward the positively charged anode, whilst the positively charged argon ions are attracted toward the negatively charge cathode on the outer side of the GM, high voltages are maintained between these electrodes, as the electrons hit the anode an amplified electrical pulse is created at the anode which is then picked up by the digital reader, the positive ions that are attracted to the negative cathodes accept electrons that make a complete circuit. Cloud Chamber - A cloud chamber contains usually alcohol, and dry ice in the bottom, and as ionising radiation is passed through the air and vapour it ionises the air molecules, the vapour caused by the dry ice and alcohol condense onto these ions and form cloud trails as the radiation is passed through the chamber. Alpha particles are very ionising and create thick trails that are relatively short due to their low penetration, Beta radiation forms long thin trails as it is less ionising but more penetrative than alpha radiation, sometimes zig-zagging. Gamma rays form vey long wispy trails, as they have very weak ionising energies but are highly penetrating. Recent discovery of an Element: o Process information from secondary sources to describe the recent discovery of a particular element. In 1999, the research team at Dubna in Russia announced the discovery of element 114, by bombarding a 24494Pu target with 4820Ca ions, using a heavy ion accelerator, the product was a single atom of ununquadium which had a half life of 30 seconds, this is considered to be quite a long half life in terms of superheavy nuclei which have only been measured in milliseconds. Uuq-292 lost 3 neutrons, and afterwards the resulting isotope decayed further by alpha emission. 24494Pu + 4820Ca ? 292114Uuq ? 289114Uuq + 3(10n), this claims that superheavy elements can be made in the laboratory. Isotopes: Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) but with differing numbers of neutrons, different mass numbers.
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Nuclear Chemistry
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Nuclear Chemistry

Words: 1871    Pages: 7    Paragraphs: 40    Sentences: 85    Read Time: 06:48
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              Types of Radiation:
             
              o List the three types of Radiation and describe conditions under which each case occurs.
              Alpha, Beta, Gamma.
              Alpha radiation/emission - Alpha particles are the nuclei of a Helium atom 42He. Consisting of two protons and two neutrons, positively charged.
              The nuclei are ejected from heavy, unstable nuclei so as to remove excess protons and neutrons. However, the formed nuclei may still be radioactive in which even further decay will occur. Alpha emissions occur in nuclei with atomic numbers greater than 83. E. g 23892U ? 42He + 23490Th (both mass and No. of protons are conserved during the reaction)
             
              Beta radiation/emission - Beta particles are electrons (0-1e) that have been released from the nucleus of a radioactive atom when a neutron decays into a proton and electron. Beta decay/emission happens when the neutron to proton ratio is too high due to excess neutrons. 10n ? 11p + 0-1e (mass is still conserved as well as number of protons. )
             
              Gamma radiation/emission - Gamma ray emission can be found when either alpha or beta decay occurs. Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic rays. Gamma radiation is just the excess energy of the reaction being shed off, gamma rays do not effect mass numbers or atomic numbers. 6027Co ? 6028Ni + 0-1e + y
             
              As elements get heavier the ratio of neutrons: protons moves away from being 1: 1, Bands of instability surround the band of stability showing where the neutron: proton ratios are either to great or too small,
             
              o Discuss the half life of radioactive elements.
              "The half-life of a radioisotope is the time required for half the atoms in a given sample to undergo radioactive decay; for any particular radioisotope, the half-life is independent of the initial amount of the isotope present" (Conquering Chemistry, HSC Course, 4th Edition, Roland Smith).
             
              Transuranic elements:
             
              o Define transuranic elements and explain how they are produced.
             
              Transuranic Elements - are elements that have been artificially synthesised, and have atomic numbers greater than 92
              Neutron Bombardment: Neptunium (Z = 93) can be made in nuclear reactors by neutron bombardment of uranium-238, achieved in 1940 by Glenn Seaborg.
              23892U + 10n ? 23992U ? 23993NP + 0-1e
              Alpha Bombardment - Alpha particles are able to produce transuranic elements. E. g. when plutonium-239 is bombarded with alpha particles an isotope of Curium (Z = 96) is formed.
              23994Pu + 42H ? 24296Cm +10n
              Ion accelerators - To produce elements with higher atomic numbers, the approach of firing accelerated particles into a target is used. The accelerated particles, usually ions produced in a linear accelerator, are fired towards the target element at velocities near the speed of light. Nuclear reactions occur in the target elements nuclei and are then analysed, velocity filters using electrical and magnetic fields separate the products of the reaction and determines their mass.
              E. g Roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111) was synthesised in 1944 as nickel-64 ions were accelerated towards bismuth-209, Rg was formed and rapidly decayed. 6428Ni + 20983Bi ? 272111Rg + 10n
             
              Commercial Radioactive Isotopes:
             
              o What are commercial radioisotopes and explain how they are produced
              Commercial radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) are radioisotopes used for commercial/industrial use such as medicine, e. g. cobalt-60 is used for cancer treatment, created by bombarding cobalt-59 with neutrons as it captures a neutron to become cobalt-60. There are two methods of producing radioisotopes 1) from nuclear reactors 2) in cyclotrons.
              1) suitable target nuclei are placed in the reactor and are bombarded with neutrons as reactors contain large sources of neutrons.
              2) A cyclotron is used in some medical radioisotope production. Here they are prepared by bombarding a target nucleus with a small positive particle e. g helium nucleus or carbon nucleus.
             
              Radioactive Isotopes:
             
              o Identify a radioisotope used in industry and one used in medicine, state the use/s of each and explain the use/s in terms of their properties.
              Medicine: Cobalt-60 is used to treat cancer as the gamma rays that are emitted during its decay are strong enough to penetrate deep into body tissue and attack the cancer cells, it has a suitable half life (4-6 years) which is sufficient for the radiation source to have a reasonable lifetime and short enough that a reasonable intensity of radiation is emitted.
             
              Industry- Food irradiation, gamma radiation is used to kill bacteria to sterilise medical supplies, however in more recent years irradiation of food has become a favourable process in which to kill micro-organisms to minimise spoilage and extend shelf life, Australia has only approved of irradiation of herbs, spices and certain herbal infusions (not tea)
              Food irradiation destroys bacteria that makes food unsafe and shorter freshness which increase wastage. On the other hand, arguments suggest that irradiation does not necessarily kill all bacteria and micro-organisms, as well as killing vitamins, and also the formation of harmful compounds, for these reasons caesium-137 is widely used as its gamma radiation is sufficient enough to destroy bacteria but not enough energy to make the food radioactive, and its half life is reasonably long so as to minimise replacement reducing costs.
             
             
             
             
              o Use available evidence to analyse the benefits and problems associated with the use of radioactive isotopes in identified industries and medicine.
             
              Benefits- Industry- The benefits of using radio isotopes in industry include, the ability to make monitoring equipment more sensitive than ever before, radioisotopes are now used to detect faults in structures such as buildings where weak spots may cause safety issues, sterilisation of medical supplies and food are now possible and are more efficient and reliable.
              Benefits-Medicine- radioisotopes have proved to be effective in that they open up a variety of non-invasive diagnostic procedures, organs such as the heart, brain and kidneys can now be examined without surgery, radioisotopes have now allowed the introduction of radiation therapy (radio therapy) which is used to treat forms of cancer, as this has proved to be most effective.
             
              Problems-Industry and Medicine, radiation is harmful to humans in any way, therefore many problems arise from the use of radioisotopes in industry and medicine.
              One example of a problem that exists with the use of radioisotopes is that radiation can cause tissue damage, the effects of this tissue damage can be seen quite quickly showing up as burns on the skin, and nausea, and depending on exposure to the particular types of radiation, death is a factor that can be taken into account, if high exposure has occurred.
              Cancers can form from prolonged exposure to radiation, the effects of some radiation may not show for many years e. g 10-20 years after exposure.
              Genetic damage is also a problem that exists with the use of radioisotopes as radiation such as gamma emission is highly ionising and can cause DNA to be altered in such a way that deformities in offspring are an effect of exposure.
             
              Safety precautions- Radioactive materials are stored in specific types of shielded containers.
              Equipment using radiation must be checked to make sure the radiation is only directed to where it is intended for use and not escaping where humans can become exposed.
              Training of people about the safe handling and use of radioactive materials.
              Protective clothing must be worn when handling radioactive materials, depending on the type of material, different clothing must be worn to ensure exposure is reduced to its minimum.
              People working around radioactive substances must wear radiation badges, that record the amount of radiation they have received.
              The safe storage and disposal of radioactive materials must be carried out in the proper way to avoid environmental damage, accounting of quantities must also be done.
              Signage of radioactive materials must also be displayed to show the presence of possible radiation where these materials are being used and or stored.
             
             
              Radiation Detection:
             
              o Identify three instruments or processes that can be used to detect radiation and explain how each one functions.
             
              Radiation Dosage Badges- worn by nuclear industry workers, that detect the amount of cumulated radiation exposure on the person. Many types of radiation badges, in particular are two most commonly used, Film badges and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's)
             
              Film Badges- These badges measure high-energy beta radiation, gamma radiation and X-radiation. One side of the badge contains a sensitive silver halide emulsion , the other side contains a slow emulsion. Low radiation doses turn the sensitive emulsion black, the slow emulsion remains the same colour. Higher doses turn the slow emulsion side black, these badges are analysed quite regularly to record the doses of radiation. Because alpha radiation is a very low penetrating emission, it is not normally monitored, as it can be stopped by a piece of paper.
             
              TLD- Aluminium Oxide or lithium fluoride are able to absorb beta or gamma radiation, this absorbed energy causes electrons to be excited to new energy states where 'trapping centres' trap them, the exposure to radiation is determined by the release of these electrons (laser radiation or heating). The visible photons of light emitted and their energy is related to the ionising radiation doses.
             
              Geieger-Muller probe and counter.
              The GM is used to measure the strength of ionising radiation, beta radiation is readily detected, however other forms of radiation can also be detected that have high ionising energies. Radiation enters the GM through a mica window in one end, argon in the middle of the device is at low pressure acts as an absorbent and when struck by high energy particles causes an electron to be ejected from the gas and are attracted toward the positively charged anode, whilst the positively charged argon ions are attracted toward the negatively charge cathode on the outer side of the GM, high voltages are maintained between these electrodes, as the electrons hit the anode an amplified electrical pulse is created at the anode which is then picked up by the digital reader, the positive ions that are attracted to the negative cathodes accept electrons that make a complete circuit.
             
              Cloud Chamber - A cloud chamber contains usually alcohol, and dry ice in the bottom, and as ionising radiation is passed through the air and vapour it ionises the air molecules, the vapour caused by the dry ice and alcohol condense onto these ions and form cloud trails as the radiation is passed through the chamber. Alpha particles are very ionising and create thick trails that are relatively short due to their low penetration, Beta radiation forms long thin trails as it is less ionising but more penetrative than alpha radiation, sometimes zig-zagging. Gamma rays form vey long wispy trails, as they have very weak ionising energies but are highly penetrating.
             
              Recent discovery of an Element:
             
              o Process information from secondary sources to describe the recent discovery of a particular element.
             
              In 1999, the research team at Dubna in Russia announced the discovery of element 114, by bombarding a 24494Pu target with 4820Ca ions, using a heavy ion accelerator, the product was a single atom of ununquadium which had a half life of 30 seconds, this is considered to be quite a long half life in terms of superheavy nuclei which have only been measured in milliseconds.
              Uuq-292 lost 3 neutrons, and afterwards the resulting isotope decayed further by alpha emission. 24494Pu + 4820Ca ? 292114Uuq ? 289114Uuq + 3(10n), this claims that superheavy elements can be made in the laboratory.
             
              Isotopes: Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) but with differing numbers of neutrons, different mass numbers.
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