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Essay on Greek Art
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Many artists seek color, value, intensity, and beauty. Millions of people spend hours at a time enjoying these aspects of art. People may ask, "Where did it all begin?" The answer lies over 4,200 years ago in the Ancient Greek civilization where they then influenced the future of western art forever. Ancient Greek artistic principles became examples for later periods to follow. The Greeks used many different types of art such as architecture, sculpture, and painting. Ancient Greece best complies with the criteria of the artistic aspect of history. Although almost all ancient Greek art was destroyed or melted down by the Romans, it is still the most important time period in art. Greek art was exhibited in architecture, sculpture, and painting. Most of their artwork was created for religious or political aspects of their lives. Some architecture, like the Parthenon, was created for political reasons. Like most Greek architecture, it has very delicately shaped stone columns in the style of Doric, which are plain and simple, Ionic, which have some details, and Corinthian, which have lots of details and design. The buildings of the time also were shaped in interesting forms like circles, ovals, or squares. Religion was also an important on Greek art. They gave many tributes to their gods and goddesses, which controlled many aspects of their lives. A strong example is the massive sculpture of the goddess, Athena, located in the Parthenon. Statues were made of bronze and sometimes marble. They were very life-like, and although there are no remaining bronze statues, there are copies of these statues in stone and marble made by the Romans. The term for art in Greek (tekhne) and Latin (ars) does not specifically denote the 'fine arts' in the modern sense, but was applied to all kinds of human activities. Art was characterized by Aristotle as a kind of activity based on knowledge and governed by rules. An individual became a painter or a sculptor, or a shoemaker, by learning the rules of the trade. The Greeks applied rules as a means of bringing order to the perceived chaos of nature and the world around them. They consciously sought order, clarity, balance, and harmony in their works. Rules provided a measure of control, and through control a form of comprehension. In this situation, painters and sculptors differed merely in their capability in applying the rules of their trade. They were admired for how well they mastered the rules, for their technique and skills. Neither the painter nor the sculptor, however, could be inspired or work according to instinct or follow intuition. In Ancient Greece, painting and sculpture were distinguished from Poetry and Music, which were the products of divine inspiration and stood outside the rules governing mundane activity. Poetry and Music were both highly respected in the Ancient World. It is indicative of their relative status that Poetry and Music are assigned Muses, but not painting and sculpture . The Greek word for a painter of a sculptor was banausos, meaning literally a mechanic. The term reflects the low social standing of the painter and sculptor in ancient society, which was based on the ancient contempt for manual work. This ancient Greek prejudice against those who work with their hands still informs to some degree the distinction between the Fine Arts and the crafts. Greek art illustrated the lives of the people. The Greeks were among the first to use mosaics. These mosaics are often in temples, mausoleums, and shrines. They all depicted the lives of the Greeks. Among these are many mosaics that show scenes of wars in which the Greeks fought. Also, they did head statues or busts of famous people of the time like Socrates and Plato. However, there are also sculptures of drunken women and other scenes that show the lives of the common people. The last major form of art is painting; there is not a lot of remaining paintings. However, it is worth mentioning because of the artist, Theon of Samos. He is the only Greek artist whose name I could find because most Greek artists had a strong sense of loyalty for their city-states and did not care about personal recognition. To a smaller extent, Greek art was also done in the form of jewelry. Jewelry often had small pictures of the gods and goddesses in gold. There were, therefore, many different types of art, which were influenced by the lives of people. Ancient Greek art strongly supports the criteria for the artistic aspects of history. One of the criteria for this project is that the time period has long lasting effects. Greek art is still enjoyed today in different forms . Many people study and enjoy different pieces of Roman art that was copied from Greek art. They like the realistic shapes and styles of the people, especially because they are life-sized and hand chiselled, which brings out the true splendor of the work. Also, many people visit the Parthenon and Acropolis to view the amazing architecture. People see their graceful yet massive structures. These major areas influenced Greek work: religion, politics, and their daily lives. It was influenced by religion because of the gods and goddesses that were the main focus of their sculpture, temples, and shrines. All the artwork in these areas was done as tributes for the gods and goddesses they worshiped. Art was also influenced by politics. This was mainly effected in architecture that was built for their Republic. Lastly, art was influenced by their daily lives as in the sculptures of ordinary people and the elaborate mosaics of the wars of that time. Other areas of their life effected Art. In a sense, it is the factor that tied all aspects of life together. The last criterion is that it was influenced by the lives of the people. The people produced art for the glory of the city-state and not personal recognition. Therefore, art was influenced by their lives in addition to the art done to portray their lives. In a culture, art is the standard of beauty. Obviously, the ancient Greeks found art important in how they portrayed it. Their strong sense of commitment to their city-states was important because they were paid to do different artwork. They felt that it was important to religion, politics, and their everyday lives. Ancient Greece was the most important time for art. The Ancient Greeks created many beautiful pieces that were, in a sense, the basis for many well-known art pieces today. World-wide, the Greeks are recognised for their accomplishments in art. The early Greeks, who settled on the Greek mainland and the western coast of Asia Minor, thought of themselves as humble successors to their heroic ancestors of the Bronze Age, which stretched nearly two millennia and encompassed the Minoan, Cycladic, and Helladic cultures. While their land lacked natural resources, it was ideally suited for trade, and during the late Geometric period (ca. 750 - 700 BC), the Greeks established colonies throughout the Mediterranean. They lived in independent city-states (the polis) bonded across continents by a common language, religion, art, and social structure. Greek art, like Greek philosophy and literature, is focused, above all, upon the idealized human form, with the main aim of exploring the human experience, interaction with the natural world, and relation to the gods. The early images of the eighth century BC employ a sophisticated geometric abstraction. Geometry and proportion would remain an underlying principle of Greek art and architecture throughout its history. The influence of different styles, motifs, materials, and techniques gained through contacts with the older civilisations of Egypt and the Near East during the seventh century BC, allowed Greek artists to break with the strict conventions of geometric style. The lion joined the horse as a powerful symbol of natural forces, and narrative became a central aim in art, as it was in Greek poetry. Archaic art retained a formal, stylistic abstraction; in the transforming Classical period of the fifth century BC, artists explored the revolutionary idea that art could imitate the finest qualities found in nature. This aim formed the basis of the Western artistic tradition until the late 19th century. To Greek architects we owe the invention of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders that became the foundation of Western architecture. The next major phase of Greek art, called the Hellenistic period, was ushered in through the conquests of Philip II of Macedonia and his son Alexander the Great. Alexander vastly expanded his kingdom to include Egypt and the Near East to beyond the Indus River, which is now Pakistan. While the political integrity of the empire did not survive the death of Alexander in 323 BC, its cultural impact was far-reaching. Under royal patronage, several regional capitals, including Alexandria in Egypt, Pergamon in Asia Minor, and Antioch in the Near East, became important artistic centres. Rome would inherit their legacy. Ancient Rome was both a city founded on seven hills surrounding the Tiber River and an empire stretching at its height from northern Britain across Europe and North Africa to the Tigris River which is now Iraq. The Romans traced their mythical ancestry to the Trojan hero, Aeneas, whose descendants, Romulus and Remus, founded the city of Rome in the eighth century BC, known in archaeological terms as the Villanovan period. During her early history, a succession of kings ruled Rome, but in 510 BC, Rome expelled the last king and established the Republic (509 - 31 BC). For the next several centuries, the history of Rome was one of colonial and military expansion, first into the surrounding territories of the Italian peninsula and then across Europe and the Mediterranean. Through conquest and bequest, Rome inherited the Hellenistic Greek world and many of its aesthetic precepts, which they took as a basis for their own artistic development. Roman generals hauled great quantities of Greek art back to Rome as booty, wealthy Romans commissioned adaptations of famous Greek sculptures for private collections, and Greek artists migrated to Rome in search of good work. With the collapse of the Republic and the formation of an Empire, Rome placed her power in the domineering rule of the Emperor. Art and architecture became increasingly used for imperial agendas, especially through large-scale building programs, portraiture, coinage, and historical reliefs. At the same time, the Roman middle class society across the Empire patronized artists with private commissions for luxury personal goods, portrait statues and richly painted houses. Roman art mirrors her Empire. Its genius lies in an ability to assimilate artistic impulses from its many regions and to disseminate a coherent, universal iconography that could be understood across continents and cultures. So now, with the Greek Empire dead and the Roman Empire having taken a lot of its art and manipulated it to suit its tastes. It remains that if the Greeks did not explore these avenues of art, then the world would not have benefited from all the works of art that have followed in the tradition of the Greek artists.
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Essay on Greek Art
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Essay On Greek Art

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              Many artists seek color, value, intensity, and beauty. Millions of people spend hours at a time enjoying these aspects of art. People may ask, "Where did it all begin? "
             
              The answer lies over 4,200 years ago in the Ancient Greek civilization where they then influenced the future of western art forever. Ancient Greek artistic principles became examples for later periods to follow. The Greeks used many different types of art such as architecture, sculpture, and painting. Ancient Greece best complies with the criteria of the artistic aspect of history.
             
              Although almost all ancient Greek art was destroyed or melted down by the Romans, it is still the most important time period in art. Greek art was exhibited in architecture, sculpture, and painting. Most of their artwork was created for religious or political aspects of their lives. Some architecture, like the Parthenon, was created for political reasons. Like most Greek architecture, it has very delicately shaped stone columns in the style of Doric, which are plain and simple, Ionic, which have some details, and Corinthian, which have lots of details and design. The buildings of the time also were shaped in interesting forms like circles, ovals, or squares.
             
              Religion was also an important on Greek art. They gave many tributes to their gods and goddesses, which controlled many aspects of their lives. A strong example is the massive sculpture of the goddess, Athena, located in the Parthenon. Statues were made of bronze and sometimes marble. They were very life-like, and although there are no remaining bronze statues, there are copies of these statues in stone and marble made by the Romans.
             
              The term for art in Greek (tekhne) and Latin (ars) does not specifically denote the 'fine arts' in the modern sense, but was applied to all kinds of human activities. Art was characterized by Aristotle as a kind of activity based on knowledge and governed by rules. An individual became a painter or a sculptor, or a shoemaker, by learning the rules of the trade.
             
              The Greeks applied rules as a means of bringing order to the perceived chaos of nature and the world around them. They consciously sought order, clarity, balance, and harmony in their works. Rules provided a measure of control, and through control a form of comprehension.
             
              In this situation, painters and sculptors differed merely in their capability in applying the rules of their trade. They were admired for how well they mastered the rules, for their technique and skills.
             
              Neither the painter nor the sculptor, however, could be inspired or work according to instinct or follow intuition. In Ancient Greece, painting and sculpture were distinguished from Poetry and Music, which were the products of divine inspiration and stood outside the rules governing mundane activity. Poetry and Music were both highly respected in the Ancient World. It is indicative of their relative status that Poetry and Music are assigned Muses, but not painting and sculpture . The Greek word for a painter of a sculptor was banausos, meaning literally a mechanic. The term reflects the low social standing of the painter and sculptor in ancient society, which was based on the ancient contempt for manual work. This ancient Greek prejudice against those who work with their hands still informs to some degree the distinction between the Fine Arts and the crafts.
             
              Greek art illustrated the lives of the people. The Greeks were among the first to use mosaics. These mosaics are often in temples, mausoleums, and shrines. They all depicted the lives of the Greeks. Among these are many mosaics that show scenes of wars in which the Greeks fought. Also, they did head statues or busts of famous people of the time like Socrates and Plato. However, there are also sculptures of drunken women and other scenes that show the lives of the common people.
             
              The last major form of art is painting; there is not a lot of remaining paintings. However, it is worth mentioning because of the artist, Theon of Samos. He is the only Greek artist whose name I could find because most Greek artists had a strong sense of loyalty for their city-states and did not care about personal recognition.
             
              To a smaller extent, Greek art was also done in the form of jewelry. Jewelry often had small pictures of the gods and goddesses in gold. There were, therefore, many different types of art, which were influenced by the lives of people.
             
              Ancient Greek art strongly supports the criteria for the artistic aspects of history. One of the criteria for this project is that the time period has long lasting effects. Greek art is still enjoyed today in different forms . Many people study and enjoy different pieces of Roman art that was copied from Greek art. They like the realistic shapes and styles of the people, especially because they are life-sized and hand chiselled, which brings out the true splendor of the work.
             
              Also, many people visit the Parthenon and Acropolis to view the amazing architecture. People see their graceful yet massive structures.
             
              These major areas influenced Greek work: religion, politics, and their daily lives. It was influenced by religion because of the gods and goddesses that were the main focus of their sculpture, temples, and shrines. All the artwork in these areas was done as tributes for the gods and goddesses they worshiped. Art was also influenced by politics. This was mainly effected in architecture that was built for their Republic. Lastly, art was influenced by their daily lives as in the sculptures of ordinary people and the elaborate mosaics of the wars of that time. Other areas of their life effected Art. In a sense, it is the factor that tied all aspects of life together. The last criterion is that it was influenced by the lives of the people. The people produced art for the glory of the city-state and not personal recognition. Therefore, art was influenced by their lives in addition to the art done to portray their lives.
             
              In a culture, art is the standard of beauty. Obviously, the ancient Greeks found art important in how they portrayed it.
             
              Their strong sense of commitment to their city-states was important because they were paid to do different artwork. They felt that it was important to religion, politics, and their everyday lives.
             
              Ancient Greece was the most important time for art. The Ancient Greeks created many beautiful pieces that were, in a sense, the basis for many well-known art pieces today.
             
              World-wide, the Greeks are recognised for their accomplishments in art. The early Greeks, who settled on the Greek mainland and the western coast of Asia Minor, thought of themselves as humble successors to their heroic ancestors of the Bronze Age, which stretched nearly two millennia and encompassed the Minoan, Cycladic, and Helladic cultures. While their land lacked natural resources, it was ideally suited for trade, and during the late Geometric period (ca. 750 - 700 BC), the Greeks established colonies throughout the Mediterranean. They lived in independent city-states (the polis) bonded across continents by a common language, religion, art, and social structure.
             
              Greek art, like Greek philosophy and literature, is focused, above all, upon the idealized human form, with the main aim of exploring the human experience, interaction with the natural world, and relation to the gods.
             
              The early images of the eighth century BC employ a sophisticated geometric abstraction.
             
              Geometry and proportion would remain an underlying principle of Greek art and architecture throughout its history. The influence of different styles, motifs, materials, and techniques gained through contacts with the older civilisations of Egypt and the Near East during the seventh century BC, allowed Greek artists to break with the strict conventions of geometric style. The lion joined the horse as a powerful symbol of natural forces, and narrative became a central aim in art, as it was in Greek poetry. Archaic art retained a formal, stylistic abstraction; in the transforming Classical period of the fifth century BC, artists explored the revolutionary idea that art could imitate the finest qualities found in nature. This aim formed the basis of the Western artistic tradition until the late 19th century.
             
              To Greek architects we owe the invention of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders that became the foundation of Western architecture.
             
              The next major phase of Greek art, called the Hellenistic period, was ushered in through the conquests of Philip II of Macedonia and his son Alexander the Great. Alexander vastly expanded his kingdom to include Egypt and the Near East to beyond the Indus River, which is now Pakistan.
             
              While the political integrity of the empire did not survive the death of Alexander in 323 BC, its cultural impact was far-reaching. Under royal patronage, several regional capitals, including Alexandria in Egypt, Pergamon in Asia Minor, and Antioch in the Near East, became important artistic centres. Rome would inherit their legacy.
             
              Ancient Rome was both a city founded on seven hills surrounding the Tiber River and an empire stretching at its height from northern Britain across Europe and North Africa to the Tigris River which is now Iraq. The Romans traced their mythical ancestry to the Trojan hero, Aeneas, whose descendants, Romulus and Remus, founded the city of Rome in the eighth century BC, known in archaeological terms as the Villanovan period. During her early history, a succession of kings ruled Rome, but in 510 BC, Rome expelled the last king and established the Republic (509 - 31 BC).
             
              For the next several centuries, the history of Rome was one of colonial and military expansion, first into the surrounding territories of the Italian peninsula and then across Europe and the Mediterranean. Through conquest and bequest, Rome inherited the Hellenistic Greek world and many of its aesthetic precepts, which they took as a basis for their own artistic development. Roman generals hauled great quantities of Greek art back to Rome as booty, wealthy Romans commissioned adaptations of famous Greek sculptures for private collections, and Greek artists migrated to Rome in search of good work.
             
              With the collapse of the Republic and the formation of an Empire, Rome placed her power in the domineering rule of the Emperor. Art and architecture became increasingly used for imperial agendas, especially through large-scale building programs, portraiture, coinage, and historical reliefs. At the same time, the Roman middle class society across the Empire patronized artists with private commissions for luxury personal goods, portrait statues and richly painted houses.
             
              Roman art mirrors her Empire. Its genius lies in an ability to assimilate artistic impulses from its many regions and to disseminate a coherent, universal iconography that could be understood across continents and cultures.
             
              So now, with the Greek Empire dead and the Roman Empire having taken a lot of its art and manipulated it to suit its tastes. It remains that if the Greeks did not explore these avenues of art, then the world would not have benefited from all the works of art that have followed in the tradition of the Greek artists.
Art Essay 
John Boardman, Greek Art. (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985).

J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Greece. (Cambridge: 1990).

Susan Woodford, An Introduction to Greek Art. (London: 1986).

WWW and Internet.

HTTP://WWW.Indiana.edu./~kglowack/Athens/Athens.HTML

HTTP://eawc.ecansville.edu/grpage.htm

HTTP://WWW.ecnet.net/users/gemedia3/htwm_index.HTML
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