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According to the " The Handy Weather Answer Book" by Kevin Hile a hurricane is defined as a tropical storm formed in the Atlantic Basin. Winds reach speeds of 74 miles per hour or more. Frequently, hurricanes occur during the months of summer. This allows energy to build from the warm surface of the ocean. Wind speeds, clouds, and the Coriolis effect all contribute to the formation of a hurricane (123). Hurricanes produce fierce winds. Nonetheless, it is the water that creates the most harm. "They can raise tides as high as 20 feet, and dump as much as 20 inches of rain inland," (Douglas, 107). In fact, the development of Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Katrina caused a tremendous amount of destruction to the Untied States. Analyzing both of these hurricanes will allow a better understanding of the damage they caused. Comparing occurrence of the event, the intensity, and damage. Examining the differences will display how unique each hurricanes are and the danger they bring. Occurrence Hurricane Sandy took place in October 2012. According to Galarneau, Davis, and Melvyn, " Sandy was a late season tropical cyclone over the the North Atlantic, that created a demolishing storm surge from southern New Jersey to Rhode Island" (4296). Sandy evolved from an African tropical wave that connected with a large area of low pressure. Mixed with high humidity of the southwest Caribbean, Sandy first made landfall over Jamaica. Next, it made landfall on Cuba. It continued its course through the Bahamas. Rather than head east, Sandy proceeded on North. Earth's rotation acts to put more vertical spin into the atmosphere the closer it gets to pole, this contributed to the growth of Sandy. However, once it got further north, Sandy transitioned to an extratropical storm. This means there was a large-scale temperature contrast between warm and cold air masses. Eventually, Sandy made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey. After the final landfall, the cyclone slowed, gradually weakening while it moved through southern New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. Hurricane Katrina occurred in August 2005. "The hurricane developed in the Atlantic Ocean, crossed the Gulf of Mexico, and struck New Orleans and many other cities along the southern coast " (Hile, 136). On August 24, 2005, Katrina flourished in the hot tropical waters south of Nassau, Bahamas. It first made landfall in Florida, however; Katrina shifted in the southwest direction towards the Gulf of Mexico. Once in the Gulf of Mexico, it moved north to Mississippi and Louisiana. It made a second landfall by Buras, Louisiana, on August 29, and a third near the Louisiana-Mississippi border later that day. It traveled across Lake Pontchartrain, where eventually the winds and rain came to a halt (Ahrens and Perry, 386). Hurricane Katrina affected Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Eastern Seaboard, Bahamas, and Cuba (Hile, 131). Intensity Wind, physical size, lowest central pressure and speed are all crucial when it comes to the intensity of a hurricane. In the article " Is It Possible to Rank Hurricanes In a Unique Matter?" Nirupama argues that there is no distinct way to rate a hurricane. In fact, ranking can be different according to specific criteria. For instance, when ranked for physical size Sandy was ranked number one at 1,600 km where as, Katrina ranked at number seven 668 km. Hurricane Katrina ranked number six for maximum speed of 280 km/h and number five for central pressure of 902 hPa. However, Sandy did not even rank on either of those two. Therefore, it goes to show that each hurricane is contrasting (Nirupama, 965). To simply say one hurricane is the most intense based on wind, size, pressure and speed would be invalid. Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale Created by engineer Herbert Saffir and hurricane specialist Robert Simpson in 1971, the Saffir- Simpson Hurricane Damage-Potential scale rates hurricanes on a scale from one to five. Where one is the least intense, minor damage and five being the most severe. This scale is commonly used to rate the wind and damage of hurricanes (Hile, 127). Hurricane Katrina started off its course as a Category 1. "Category 1 is defined as winds 74 to 95 miles per hour, causing no damage to structures with most destruction towards mobile homes, shrubbery, and tress" (Douglas, 110). However, once Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico, the warm water gave off immense energy, causing it to reach a rare category 5. Luckily, it diminished into a category 3 before striking the Louisiana coast (Fragile Earth, 54). Douglas defines Category 3 hurricane as, " Winds 111 to 130 miles per hour and storm surge 9 to 12 feet above normal, causing structural expense to small residences, large trees blown down, and escape routes altered due to rising water three to five hours before arrival " (110). Damage Fatalities Hile states, " Final figures reported 1,836 citizens died following the landfall of Hurricane Katrina " (136). Although President George W. Bush announced a state of emergency in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi two days prior to the landfall. Citizens were unprepared, and state and local enforces were unable to transfer everyone out of the town (Douglas 128). There has been much criticism about the way this situation was dealt with. There should not have been that many fatalities, if proper evacuation plans were presented. Property Damage Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane. Hurricane Katrina is well known to be one of the costliest hurricanes reported. It is estimated that damaged added up between 100 billion dollars to 135 billion dollars (Hile, 132). Just before the hurricane hit, Canal Street in New Orleans was renovated. Costing nearly 13 million dollars. For instance, 200 Moroccan palms which cost 7000 dollars a piece were planted (Fragile Earth, 76). Due to all the excess water from the hurricane, most of the palms were uprooted and died. Another catastrophe was in Gulfport, Mississippi, where a three- story barge was washed up 28 to 30 feet inland. The damages to the port alone cost half a billion dollars (Fragile earth, 77). According the Arhens and Perry, " High winds, enormous waves, and a huge storm surge caused devastating destruction to levee system that shields New Orleans " (386). The levee was demolished, allowing 20 feet of water to absorb the city. The city of New Orleans now was facing two problems, a hurricane and a flood. More than 80 percent of the city was engulfed in water (Hile,138). Residents were unable to live in their homes. The city was left uninhabitable, forcing citizens to other cities and states. For example, Douglas explains, " Nearly 300,000 residents of New Orleans retreated to Texas for safety, many assuring to never come back" (131).
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Comparisons Between Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Katrina
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Comparisons Between Hurricane Sandy And Hurricane Katrina

Words: 1051    Pages: 4    Paragraphs: 8    Sentences: 72    Read Time: 03:49
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              According to the " The Handy Weather Answer Book" by Kevin Hile a hurricane is defined as a tropical storm formed in the Atlantic Basin. Winds reach speeds of 74 miles per hour or more. Frequently, hurricanes occur during the months of summer. This allows energy to build from the warm surface of the ocean. Wind speeds, clouds, and the Coriolis effect all contribute to the formation of a hurricane (123). Hurricanes produce fierce winds. Nonetheless, it is the water that creates the most harm. "They can raise tides as high as 20 feet, and dump as much as 20 inches of rain inland," (Douglas, 107). In fact, the development of Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Katrina caused a tremendous amount of destruction to the Untied States. Analyzing both of these hurricanes will allow a better understanding of the damage they caused. Comparing occurrence of the event, the intensity, and damage. Examining the differences will display how unique each hurricanes are and the danger they bring.
             
              Occurrence
              Hurricane Sandy took place in October 2012. According to Galarneau, Davis, and Melvyn, " Sandy was a late season tropical cyclone over the the North Atlantic, that created a demolishing storm surge from southern New Jersey to Rhode Island" (4296). Sandy evolved from an African tropical wave that connected with a large area of low pressure. Mixed with high humidity of the southwest Caribbean, Sandy first made landfall over Jamaica. Next, it made landfall on Cuba. It continued its course through the Bahamas. Rather than head east, Sandy proceeded on North. Earth's rotation acts to put more vertical spin into the atmosphere the closer it gets to pole, this contributed to the growth of Sandy. However, once it got further north, Sandy transitioned to an extratropical storm. This means there was a large-scale temperature contrast between warm and cold air masses. Eventually, Sandy made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey. After the final landfall, the cyclone slowed, gradually weakening while it moved through southern New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.
             
              Hurricane Katrina occurred in August 2005. "The hurricane developed in the Atlantic Ocean, crossed the Gulf of Mexico, and struck New Orleans and many other cities along the southern coast " (Hile, 136). On August 24, 2005, Katrina flourished in the hot tropical waters south of Nassau, Bahamas. It first made landfall in Florida, however; Katrina shifted in the southwest direction towards the Gulf of Mexico. Once in the Gulf of Mexico, it moved north to Mississippi and Louisiana. It made a second landfall by Buras, Louisiana, on August 29, and a third near the Louisiana-Mississippi border later that day. It traveled across Lake Pontchartrain, where eventually the winds and rain came to a halt (Ahrens and Perry, 386). Hurricane Katrina affected Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Eastern Seaboard, Bahamas, and Cuba (Hile, 131).
             
              Intensity
              Wind, physical size, lowest central pressure and speed are all crucial when it comes to the intensity of a hurricane. In the article " Is It Possible to Rank Hurricanes In a Unique Matter? " Nirupama argues that there is no distinct way to rate a hurricane. In fact, ranking can be different according to specific criteria. For instance, when ranked for physical size Sandy was ranked number one at 1,600 km where as, Katrina ranked at number seven 668 km. Hurricane Katrina ranked number six for maximum speed of 280 km/h and number five for central pressure of 902 hPa. However, Sandy did not even rank on either of those two. Therefore, it goes to show that each hurricane is contrasting (Nirupama, 965). To simply say one hurricane is the most intense based on wind, size, pressure and speed would be invalid.
             
              Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale
              Created by engineer Herbert Saffir and hurricane specialist Robert Simpson in 1971, the Saffir- Simpson Hurricane Damage-Potential scale rates hurricanes on a scale from one to five. Where one is the least intense, minor damage and five being the most severe. This scale is commonly used to rate the wind and damage of hurricanes (Hile, 127).
              Hurricane Katrina started off its course as a Category 1. "Category 1 is defined as winds 74 to 95 miles per hour, causing no damage to structures with most destruction towards mobile homes, shrubbery, and tress" (Douglas, 110). However, once Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico, the warm water gave off immense energy, causing it to reach a rare category 5. Luckily, it diminished into a category 3 before striking the Louisiana coast (Fragile Earth, 54). Douglas defines Category 3 hurricane as, " Winds 111 to 130 miles per hour and storm surge 9 to 12 feet above normal, causing structural expense to small residences, large trees blown down, and escape routes altered due to rising water three to five hours before arrival " (110).
             
              Damage Fatalities
              Hile states, " Final figures reported 1,836 citizens died following the landfall of Hurricane Katrina " (136). Although President George W. Bush announced a state of emergency in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi two days prior to the landfall. Citizens were unprepared, and state and local enforces were unable to transfer everyone out of the town (Douglas 128). There has been much criticism about the way this situation was dealt with. There should not have been that many fatalities, if proper evacuation plans were presented.
             
              Property Damage
              Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane.
              Hurricane Katrina is well known to be one of the costliest hurricanes reported. It is estimated that damaged added up between 100 billion dollars to 135 billion dollars (Hile, 132). Just before the hurricane hit, Canal Street in New Orleans was renovated. Costing nearly 13 million dollars. For instance, 200 Moroccan palms which cost 7000 dollars a piece were planted (Fragile Earth, 76). Due to all the excess water from the hurricane, most of the palms were uprooted and died. Another catastrophe was in Gulfport, Mississippi, where a three- story barge was washed up 28 to 30 feet inland. The damages to the port alone cost half a billion dollars (Fragile earth, 77). According the Arhens and Perry, " High winds, enormous waves, and a huge storm surge caused devastating destruction to levee system that shields New Orleans " (386). The levee was demolished, allowing 20 feet of water to absorb the city. The city of New Orleans now was facing two problems, a hurricane and a flood. More than 80 percent of the city was engulfed in water (Hile,138). Residents were unable to live in their homes. The city was left uninhabitable, forcing citizens to other cities and states. For example, Douglas explains, " Nearly 300,000 residents of New Orleans retreated to Texas for safety, many assuring to never come back" (131).
Hurricane Essay 
Ahrens, C. Donald., and Perry James. Samson. Extreme Weather and Climate. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Douglas, Paul. Restless Skies: The Ultimate Weather Book. New York: Sterling Pub., 2005. Print.
Fragile Earth: Views of a Changing World. New York, NY: Collins, 2006. Print.
Galarneau, Thomas J., Christopher A. Davis, and Melvyn A. Shapiro. "Intensification of Hurricane Sandy (2012) through Extratropical Warm Core Seclusion." Monthly Weather Review 141.12 (2013): 4296-321. Print.
Hile, Kevin. The Handy Weather Answer Book. Canton, MI: Visible Ink, 2009. Print.
Mcnally, Tony, Massimo Bonavita, and Jean-No?l Th?paut. "The Role of Satellite Data in the Forecasting of Hurricane Sandy." Monthly Weather Review 142.2 (2014): 634-46. Print.
Nirupama, N. "Is It Possible to Rank Hurricanes in a Unique Manner?" Natural Hazards 67.2 (2013): 963-68. Print.
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