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Dairy Cows have been used by humans for thousands of years for their milk and meat, they were domesticated around 8,500 years ago and were introduced into New Zealand in around 1814. Since then cows have made a massive impact of the economy and meat & Dairy production. Today there are around 1.3 Billion cows worldwide. Left to live naturally, they live to between 15-20 years old. To live and produce good milk, Dairy cows require fresh grass and air. They function best living in open areas in small packs, as it allows them to be relaxed and stay reasonably fit. "Dairy cattle at all stages of their lives require food which is adequate to maintain their health, vigor,satisfactory growth, production and reproduction...The provision of an adequate supply of water is critical for maintaining dairy cattle health and welfare. The way in which daily water requirements are supplied varies between farms. Different classes of dairy cattle have wide variations for water needs during the year which, if not adequately fulfilled, can lead to rapid deterioration of animal health and welfare."- Code of dairy cattle welfare issued under the animal welfare act 2010. Over time cows were used both for meat and milk, however, farmers found that specializing them and growing larger udders would be more of a benefit in milk production than trying to maintain their health to produce both. In 2006 New Zealand's dairy cows produced 15,000 tonnes of milk. In the same year, we drank 90.0 Litres of Milk, 7.1 kgs of Cheese and 6.3 kgs of Cheese (per person, average). Overtime New Zealand diary cows have thrived in the climate and now the New Zealand owned dairy company, Fontera is one of the worlds largest companies. One of the main welfare issues with dairy cows is the 'cubical farming' it is where the dairy cows stay in indoor 'cubicles' for long periods of time. This environment can cause the cattle much stress and also, venerable to udder infections that can effect their milk yields and cause many costs for the owners, this is a large problem for dairy cows as they need to constantly produce good milk so as not to threaten human health. Another main health issue is the amount of milk that is pumped out of the cow. Dairy Cows can produce up to 50 litres of milk per day, however forcing it out of them can split udders and make them even more venerable to infection in their udders.There are no specific organizations that focus only on the welfare of the dairy cow however there are many organizations such as safe and the green party. These Organisations focus on growing Dairy cows and producing milk naturally. The Green party created much of a political uproar when the plan to farm dairy cattle in factories was lodged, this up-roar lead to the review of the Dairy cattle welfare act(2010). Because, as politicians they get a large amount of publicity, they aim to keep the issue of factory farming dairy cows in the media so that the public are fully aware of the issues that are going on. SAFE is a New Zealand run organization and focuses on exploitation of animals and the maintenance of Healthy animals. They achieve these goals through television adverts, billboards and public campaigns. All of these prick peoples emotions and will allow people to help in their attempt to keep animal rights, health and welfare. For the dairy cow they believe that putting them into 'cubicles' only stresses them out more and makes them more venerable to udder infections caused by the confined dirty environment, such as Mastits. Over time safe has had a large impact on the welfare of Dairy cattle and have stopped many plans for dairy factory farms such as the Mackenzie district where they planned to keep 18,000 animals in cubicles for 24 hours a day, 8 months a year.There are many medicines and applications of science that can help improve the health and welfare of the dairy cows. These are things such as antibiotics that are very effective for recovering udder infections such as Mastitis, a disease caused by bacteria and poor living conditions. This disease reduces milk yields and the antibiotics can be quite costly however needs to be used together with natural treatment one by itself, is quite ineffective. Although the Mastitis can be 'gone' and udder is no longer inflamed, The milk becomes less valuable because the milk supposedly 'contains' the antibiotics, and the cow can potentially not be used for milking for a full week, if not left to recover fully so they can produce good milk again. The cleanliness of the milking machines is another factors that can put the health of the cows in danger, If the milking cups have not been cleaned prior to the milking of the cows, pathogens can enter through the teat canal and affect the quality of milk production and the health of the udder. These can be avoided through using disinfectant on the milk cups and then watering them, however for the disinfectant to work there needs to be a very quick change in temperature, this is the way that the pathogens and germs are killed to avoid contaminated milk. Overall, science's medicines and methods of hot cold are effective for the health of the animals however in our modern world using antibiotics are not very popular as they are said to 'contaminate' the milk, Organic farming is farming the cattle with out giving them medicines and giving them more natural treatments. Science's methods are very effective and help with large scale milk production however need to be used as well as natural methods. Dairy cows are very valuable animals and bring a lot of money into the country, at the same time they bring some huge costs. Maintenance costs (per 100 cattle) can range anywhere from $18,000-$50,000. This includes medication for common factory farm infections such as Mastitis, Shelter costs (power, water) Milking machine running costs & disinfectants and cleaning equipment. It also costs organizations such as safe, to be protesting and campaigning for the rights of the cows wellbeing , depending on how many they do, each year it can range from $1,000-$4,000 per animal, per year. At the same time, they bring much profit into New Zealand. Fontera has 30% of New Zealands Dairy exports and bring in $771m dollars of profit p/year. The main maintenance costs are the medical ones, because the cows are being constantly milked and are living in quite intimidate environments, hygiene problems are forever present, for the basic Mastitis, 1 syringe costs around $15 usd. This syringe can only serve 1 cow and although it is effective in turn incurs in large costs however is an essential in the health of the animal as stated in the code of animal welfare, 2010Animal welfare is a political issue that continuously keeps popping up and in 2010, the dairy cattle code of welfare was renewed and there were many different requirements that were added, food, water, environment and medical. Because New Zealand supposedly have the best dairy farming in the world, this code was important to put in place as we have a good reputation for natural dairy farming and with plans arising for factory farms in the Mackenzie basin, the issue was brought up by the green party. At the current time, a political review is going on around the price of milk and whether they are 'ripping' the people of New Zealand off.
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Dairy Cows
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Dairy Cows

Words: 1251    Pages: 5    Paragraphs: 4    Sentences: 53    Read Time: 04:32
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              Dairy Cows have been used by humans for thousands of years for their milk and meat, they were domesticated around 8,500 years ago and were introduced into New Zealand in around 1814. Since then cows have made a massive impact of the economy and meat & Dairy production. Today there are around 1. 3 Billion cows worldwide. Left to live naturally, they live to between 15-20 years old. To live and produce good milk, Dairy cows require fresh grass and air. They function best living in open areas in small packs, as it allows them to be relaxed and stay reasonably fit. "Dairy cattle at all stages of their lives require food which is adequate to maintain their health, vigor,satisfactory growth, production and reproduction. . . The provision of an adequate supply of water is critical for maintaining dairy cattle health and welfare. The way in which daily water requirements are supplied varies between farms. Different classes of dairy cattle have wide variations for water needs during the year which, if not adequately fulfilled, can lead to rapid deterioration of animal health and welfare. "- Code of dairy cattle welfare issued under the animal welfare act 2010. Over time cows were used both for meat and milk, however, farmers found that specializing them and growing larger udders would be more of a benefit in milk production than trying to maintain their health to produce both. In 2006 New Zealand's dairy cows produced 15,000 tonnes of milk. In the same year, we drank 90. 0 Litres of Milk, 7. 1 kgs of Cheese and 6. 3 kgs of Cheese (per person, average). Overtime New Zealand diary cows have thrived in the climate and now the New Zealand owned dairy company, Fontera is one of the worlds largest companies. One of the main welfare issues with dairy cows is the 'cubical farming' it is where the dairy cows stay in indoor 'cubicles' for long periods of time. This environment can cause the cattle much stress and also, venerable to udder infections that can effect their milk yields and cause many costs for the owners, this is a large problem for dairy cows as they need to constantly produce good milk so as not to threaten human health. Another main health issue is the amount of milk that is pumped out of the cow. Dairy Cows can produce up to 50 litres of milk per day, however forcing it out of them can split udders and make them even more venerable to infection in their udders. There are no specific organizations that focus only on the welfare of the dairy cow however there are many organizations such as safe and the green party. These Organisations focus on growing Dairy cows and producing milk naturally. The Green party created much of a political uproar when the plan to farm dairy cattle in factories was lodged, this up-roar lead to the review of the Dairy cattle welfare act(2010). Because, as politicians they get a large amount of publicity, they aim to keep the issue of factory farming dairy cows in the media so that the public are fully aware of the issues that are going on.
             
              SAFE is a New Zealand run organization and focuses on exploitation of animals and the maintenance of Healthy animals. They achieve these goals through television adverts, billboards and public campaigns. All of these prick peoples emotions and will allow people to help in their attempt to keep animal rights, health and welfare. For the dairy cow they believe that putting them into 'cubicles' only stresses them out more and makes them more venerable to udder infections caused by the confined dirty environment, such as Mastits. Over time safe has had a large impact on the welfare of Dairy cattle and have stopped many plans for dairy factory farms such as the Mackenzie district where they planned to keep 18,000 animals in cubicles for 24 hours a day, 8 months a year. There are many medicines and applications of science that can help improve the health and welfare of the dairy cows. These are things such as antibiotics that are very effective for recovering udder infections such as Mastitis, a disease caused by bacteria and poor living conditions. This disease reduces milk yields and the antibiotics can be quite costly however needs to be used together with natural treatment one by itself, is quite ineffective. Although the Mastitis can be 'gone' and udder is no longer inflamed, The milk becomes less valuable because the milk supposedly 'contains' the antibiotics, and the cow can potentially not be used for milking for a full week, if not left to recover fully so they can produce good milk again. The cleanliness of the milking machines is another factors that can put the health of the cows in danger, If the milking cups have not been cleaned prior to the milking of the cows, pathogens can enter through the teat canal and affect the quality of milk production and the health of the udder. These can be avoided through using disinfectant on the milk cups and then watering them, however for the disinfectant to work there needs to be a very quick change in temperature, this is the way that the pathogens and germs are killed to avoid contaminated milk. Overall, science's medicines and methods of hot cold are effective for the health of the animals however in our modern world using antibiotics are not very popular as they are said to 'contaminate' the milk, Organic farming is farming the cattle with out giving them medicines and giving them more natural treatments. Science's methods are very effective and help with large scale milk production however need to be used as well as natural methods.
             
              Dairy cows are very valuable animals and bring a lot of money into the country, at the same time they bring some huge costs. Maintenance costs (per 100 cattle) can range anywhere from $18,000-$50,000. This includes medication for common factory farm infections such as Mastitis, Shelter costs (power, water) Milking machine running costs & disinfectants and cleaning equipment. It also costs organizations such as safe, to be protesting and campaigning for the rights of the cows wellbeing , depending on how many they do, each year it can range from $1,000-$4,000 per animal, per year. At the same time, they bring much profit into New Zealand. Fontera has 30% of New Zealands Dairy exports and bring in $771m dollars of profit p/year.
             
              The main maintenance costs are the medical ones, because the cows are being constantly milked and are living in quite intimidate environments, hygiene problems are forever present, for the basic Mastitis, 1 syringe costs around $15 usd. This syringe can only serve 1 cow and although it is effective in turn incurs in large costs however is an essential in the health of the animal as stated in the code of animal welfare, 2010Animal welfare is a political issue that continuously keeps popping up and in 2010, the dairy cattle code of welfare was renewed and there were many different requirements that were added, food, water, environment and medical. Because New Zealand supposedly have the best dairy farming in the world, this code was important to put in place as we have a good reputation for natural dairy farming and with plans arising for factory farms in the Mackenzie basin, the issue was brought up by the green party. At the current time, a political review is going on around the price of milk and whether they are 'ripping' the people of New Zealand off.
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