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The Amur tiger is presently threatened with extinction in the wild. Formerly found throughout southeast Siberia from Lake Baikal to the Sea of Japan, as well as northeast China and the Korean Peninsula, its range has shrunk to such an extent that the only remaining viable population is now found in Pnmorye and southern Khabarovsk Krais in the Russian Far East. The last census of tigers in this region, performed in 1986, estimated that 350 animals ranged between the two Krais, and may have some contact with a remnant population in Heilingjong and Jilan Provinces in northeast China. Although nobody knows how many tigers presently exist in this region, nearly all biologists agree that the Amur tiger population has decreased dramatically in the last 3 years. Therefore, immediate actions must be taken to insure that this species is not lost from the wild. Due to the threatened status of the tiger, a national strategy for Amur tiger conservation is being developed in Russia, based on the recent decree by Chairman V. Chernomyrdin. A critical component of a national strategy will be the recommendations for habitat protection for Primorye and Khabarovsk Krais: what lands need to be protected, and how those lands should be protected to insure the survival of the Amur tiger. The Arnur Tiger Program, developed by the International Group for the Conservation of the Amur Tiger, has identified the need for a proposed network of protected territories, but so far there are no concrete proposals. The submits the following recommendations to be discussed, edited, and revised by the Russian specialists of the International Group for the Conservation of the Amur Tiger and representatives of the Krai and federal committees responsible for tiger conservation. The goal of this habitat conservation plan is to protect all existing tiger habitat, i.e., no further loss of Amur tiger habitat should occur. Achievement of this goal does not mean that all other land uses must be halted. Harvest of natural resources is possible without destruction of tiger habitat, if it is done carefully, and with safeguards. To achieve this goal of no future habitat loss, we propose that an effective habitat protection plan for Amur tigers consists of three key components. First, there must be a core area that consists of a network of protected areas. This core network acts to insure that the metapopulation of tigers will not be fragmented, provides for a minimum population of tigers, and provides a protected "reservoir" out of which tigers can emigrate to areas where tigers have been eliminated. Secondly, all lands important to tiger conservation must be identified and included in a zoning process that assesses the importance of the area to tiger conservation, and delineates minimum standards that must be maintained to retain the quality of existing habitat.. The core network by itself provides for only a minimum number of tigers. To insure survival of the entire population, management must be extended to non-protected areas outside the core area. Therefore, management zones must be delineated for all potential tiger habitat. This zoning process sets priorities as to which areas are most important, and acknowledges that there are some areas not suitable for occupation by tigers. Since different sections of the core area will have various levels of protection (some will be zapovedniks, some national parks, some ecological corridors) zoning must be conducted for lands both inside and outside the core area. Thirdly, all important tiger habitat must be interconnected. A system of ecological corridors and protected areas is essential to avoid fragmentation of the Russian Far East Amur tiger population. Connectivity of the entire population will avoid the impact of genetic impoverishment and reduce the chances of localized extirpation of small, isolated subpopulations resulting, eventually, in loss of the entire metapopulation. Our experience is based on 3 - years' intensive research of tiger movements, home range size, and behavior based on a radio tracking study in Sikhote-Alin Reserve and in southwest Primorye - the first research of its kind for the Amur tiger. The Hornoker Wildlife Institute also has extensive experience in developing conservation plans for other large carnivores (for example, mountain lions, brown bears, jaguars and leopards). Therefore we can help the Russian government to develop a frame work for conservation that has worked for other large carnivores in other countries. It will of course be necessary for the Russian specialists to adopt those components of this program that are feasible in the unique conditions of the Russian Far East. We hope that we can work together towards that goal. We realize that a comprehensive conservation plan for the Amur tiger will involve many components: anti-poaching, ungulate management, enforcement of CITES regulations, research, environment! Al education, as well as habitat protection. This plan is limited to the discussion of the criteria needed to select habitat for protection, a proposal on what lands should be incorporated into a core area, recommendations for zoning lands for tiger conservation, and a proposal on how planning should proceed in the future. This proposal is split into five sections: 1) an introduction; 2) a discussion of the criteria that must be considered in developing a land-use plan for tiger conservation; 3) a description of a proposed core network of protected areas; 4) a description of additional lands that must be zoned for tiger conservation; and, 5) a discussion of the future work that needs to be done to successfully carry out this plan. A comprehensive land - use plan for tiger conservation should be based on 7 considerations: 1) long- range planning must account for worst case scenarios; 2) the social structure of tiger populations (home range size and territoriality! will limit potential densities, and must be understood; 3) management of the prey base is essential to survival of the tiger population; 41 a network of protected areas should form a core tiger management zone; 5} connectivity of all protected areas is necessary, and will require development of ecological corridors; 6) the impact of a road system is significant and must tee minimized; 7) the relationship between logging, the timber Industry, and tiger conservation is complex, but must be understood. Each of these considerations is detailed below. It Is essential that a plan for tiger conservation consider the potential changes in tiger habitat over the long-term. While the forests that provide tiger habitat presently seem relatively secure, it must be remembered that the distribution of the Amur tiger has shrunk enormously from its distribution only 100 years ago, and it must be assumed that unless dramatic action is taken, the trend will continue. Habitat destruction is the primary long-term threat to the survival of the Amur tiger. Therefore, a national planning strategy must consider the long-term threats to tiger conservation, and implement that plan which confronts economic and political realities. Planning must consider what steps are necessary to insure survival of the Amur tiger not only today, but far into the future. Many biologists suggest that protection plans should provide for wildlife protection at least 100 years Into the future. Most conservation plans for rare animal species are predicated on providing for the needs of the adult female segment of the population. Adult females are the critical component of a population because variation in female reproductive parameters (litter size, age of first breeding, Interval between litters) often are the key factors affecting the reproductive rate of a population. Additionally, pregnant females or those rearing young are often faced with the most narrow ecological constraints and habitat requirements. Although males often exist at lower densities than females (as appears to be the case for Amur tigers), absence of males is rarely a factor limiting reproduction of a population. Therefore, the following information Is oriented towards the needs of female tigers. Based on 3-years' radio- tracking data from Sikhote-Alin State Reserve, the average home range size of adult females Is approximately 450 km2. This value was estimated for 5 adult females using the 100% minimum convex polygon method. The area of study, since it is a zapovednik, probably represents some of the best remaining habitat for Amur tigers. Throughout tiger range, from India to Russia, home range size is largely dependent on the density of prey species in the region. Therefore, given the heavy exploitation of prey species and poaching of tigers outside of zapovedniks, there are likely few other places in Primorye or Khabarovsk Krais where densities of tigers are likely to be higher than in Sikhote-Alin Reserve (Lazo Reserve being one possible exception). Therefore, we believe that this value provides what is probably a realistic estimate of home range size of adult female tigers in high quality habitat, and may be overly optimistic for much of tiger habitat. In addition to this estimate of home range size, our available information suggests that, as has been noted by Russian biologists here, and for Bengal tigers in Nepal, adult female tigers are territorial. Therefore, we can expect that every 450 km2 of tiger habitat can maintain only one adult breeding female tiger. These two pieces of information, home range size and territoriality of adult tigresses, are critical in developing a tiger conservation plan. Using this information, we can estimate that high quality tiger habitat will have, on average, 2.2 adult female tigers per 100,000 ha. Several studies of food habits (by Abramov, Zhivotchenko, Yudakov and Nikalaev, Kucherenko and the work of the research program in Sikhote-Alin) have demonstrated that throughout most of their range Amur tigers are dependent on wild boar and elk as primary prey species. Both species should occur at high densities in tiger habitat, but given sufficient densities of either prey species, tigers can concentrate on one or the other. Therefore, management programs should be designed to provide quality habitat for elk and/ or wild boar, and reduce hunting levels to insure adequate densities. For small populations of endangered species, two general rules have been developed by geneticists to prevent genetic deterioration due to inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of genetic diversity. To protect the genetic Integrity of a species for a short period of time (for instance, 50 years) a minimum population of 50 adult breeding animals is required. However, for long-term survival of the population, at least 500 individuals are required. This general rule is complicated by the fact that these estimates are actually based on "effective population size", which depends upon, among other things, the relative number of young produced by each male and female that survive to participate in the breeding of the next generation. Therefore, generally more individuals than these baseline estimates imply are required to offset these other variables. Since we do not have the information necessary to estimate the effective population size of the Amur tiger population, we conservatively suggest that the conservation goal should be to protect the core area that would provide for at least 50 adult breeding females, while at the same time protecting total habitat size to provide for at least 300 adult breeding females. The above information on home range size (450 Km2 per adult female) and territoriality suggest that, to maintain a population of 50 adult breeding females, at least 22,500 Km2 of high-quality tiger habitat are required, while to provide for 300 breeding females, 135,000 km2 is necessary. Even the first objective (50 adult breeding females) is not easily obtained. Since creation of one protected area of such size is impossible in upon, among Amur tiger range that will be essential to develop a network of protected areas that together act to provide a core region that protects a core population of tigers. As a first approximation, we provide a very crude estimate of adult female tiger density in each element of a proposed network to model the potential estimate of an effective a core network could protect. Since tiger density over much of Primorye and Khabarovsk is much lower than our estimate based on tigers living in Sikhote-Alin Reserve, the estimate of tiger density on units of the core network must be adjusted to avoid overly optimistic estimates of number tigers. We provide a very crude estimate of tiger density in units proposed for projection Due to these adjustments the total area required to be larger than if we assumed all habitat would be maintained at the same level of protection (zapovedniks). Meeting the second objective (300 breeding females) is difficult, but not impossible. There are approximately 15 million ha (150,000 km2 ) of tiger habitat remaining in Primorye and Khabarovsk Krais. If this entire region were high quality habitat, it would provide for 333 adult females. However, much of this area is relatively poor habitat. This situation therefore requires that no further habitat loss can be allowed because It severely reduces the chances of long-term survival of the endangered population. A zoning process that protects all existing tiger habitat is therefore essential. To maintain the possibility of genetic exchange vital to long-term viability of the Amur tiger population, the network of protected areas, as well as all other areas managed for tigers, must be Interconnected. Therefore, each core area, as well as areas designated as important Tiger Management Zone (see below) must be interconnected. This will require development of ecological corridors to insure protection of habitat and the possibility of movement of tigers between management zones. Narrow ecological corridors not sufficient for tigers. Corridors for tigers must be wide: large enough to sustain prey populations and large enough to sustain tigers while living in and traveling through corridors. A critical impact on tigers is the development of a road system that is usually created for purposes of logging. These roads, once created, provide easy access not only to loggers, but many other people. It has been well documented in many parts of the world that when roads are created in formerly roadless areas, the density of game animals decreasing substantially. Roads provide easy access for both legal and illegal activity. Poachers have more opportunities to shoot tigers and their prey, and more prey will be legally harvested in areas that were formerly "sanctuaries" for tigers due to the absence of roads. Furthermore, as the number of vehicles using these roads increases, so does the mortality risk to animals. in some regions of North America, roadkills (animals hit by cars) have been the greatest source of mortality for large carnivores. Although few specialists in the Russian Far East consider roads an Important issue, the reduction of the number of roads, and/or restricted access to roads, should be one of the key management recommendations of a national strategy for tiger conservation. It is acknowledged that roads must be created to provide access for logging activities. However, once logging is completed in a region, these roads should be partially destroyed, or made Impassable for vehicles. Destruction of a small portion of the road would be a relatively inexpensive procedure for logging ventures, and would leave most of the road intact when logging resumes during the next harvest rotation. Tiger Relationship To Logging And Forestry Management Practices Logging is not necessarily bad for tigers. Selective cutting, as it is practiced in many regions of the Russian Far East, creates small openings that produce food for elk. However, large clearcuts will be detrimental to elk, wild boar, and tigers. Large clear-cuts should be forbidden in Primorye and southern Khabarovsk. Forests should be managed to increase the amount of old- growth Korean pine forests, which provide important habitat for wild boar (prey of tiger) as well as many other animal species. Large stands of Korean pine may be created by linking small stands through a land-use planning process at the local level. Although harvest of Korean pine has been outlawed this species is still being cut and exported. Both legal and illegal harvest of Korean pine must be stopped. The relationship between tigers and open lands (hayfields clearcuts, and other openings) will be an important consideration In land-use planning. Based on experiences here and in Nepal (where studies of the Bengal tiger have been conducted), tigers generally avoid unforested areas fields, or open ground unless there is a thick understory of shrubs or grasses. It is therefore likely that they would also avoid large clearcuts. Tiger habitat is generally forested. While it is clear that clearcuts will not provide good habitat for tigers in the short term, it is difficult to determine what exact percentage of land must be maintained as forested to be suitable for tigers. One of the radio-collared tigers being studied by the Siberian Tiger Project near Terney lives in a region where approximately 20% of her home range is in farmland, hayfields, or other open areas. Although this does not seem to affect her behavior, she has the largest home range of all females studied, and she has killed livestock every year. Depredation of domestic animals, and the high amount of human activity in her home range makes her susceptible to being shot by a farmer or hunter. It is likely that when the percent of forested land becomes less than 60%, the network of agricultural fields, human habitations, and disturbances may make an area unsuitable for tigers, I or that the high degree of interaction with people (and the resultant livestock killing) would make the presence of tigers unacceptable. To be conservative, it is recommended that areas being managed for tigers in the Russian Far East maintain at least 70% of the area as forested. Clearcutting should not be allowed in forests managed for tigers, and all open, non-forested areas should be as small as possible. In areas managed primarily for tigers, 90% of land should be forested.
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Amur Tiger and Its Extinction Essay
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Amur Tiger And Its Extinction Essay

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              The Amur tiger is presently threatened with extinction in the wild. Formerly found throughout southeast Siberia from Lake Baikal to the Sea of Japan, as well as northeast China and the Korean Peninsula, its range has shrunk to such an extent that the only remaining viable population is now found in Pnmorye and southern Khabarovsk Krais in the Russian Far East. The last census of tigers in this region, performed in 1986, estimated that 350 animals ranged between the two Krais, and may have some contact with a remnant population in Heilingjong and Jilan Provinces in northeast China. Although nobody knows how many tigers presently exist in this region, nearly all biologists agree that the Amur tiger population has decreased dramatically in the last 3 years. Therefore, immediate actions must be taken to insure that this species is not lost from the wild.
             
             
              Due to the threatened status of the tiger, a national strategy for Amur tiger conservation is being developed in Russia, based on the recent decree by Chairman V. Chernomyrdin. A critical component of a national strategy will be the recommendations for habitat protection for Primorye and Khabarovsk Krais: what lands need to be protected, and how those lands should be protected to insure the survival of the Amur tiger. The Arnur Tiger Program, developed by the International Group for the Conservation of the Amur Tiger, has identified the need for a proposed network of protected territories, but so far there are no concrete proposals. The submits the following recommendations to be discussed, edited, and revised by the Russian specialists of the International Group for the Conservation of the Amur Tiger and representatives of the Krai and federal committees responsible for tiger conservation.
             
              The goal of this habitat conservation plan is to protect all existing tiger habitat, i. e. , no further loss of Amur tiger habitat should occur. Achievement of this goal does not mean that all other land uses must be halted. Harvest of natural resources is possible without destruction of tiger habitat, if it is done carefully, and with safeguards.
             
              To achieve this goal of no future habitat loss, we propose that an effective habitat protection plan for Amur tigers consists of three key components. First, there must be a core area that consists of a network of protected areas. This core network acts to insure that the metapopulation of tigers will not be fragmented, provides for a minimum population of tigers, and provides a protected "reservoir" out of which tigers can emigrate to areas where tigers have been eliminated.
             
              Secondly, all lands important to tiger conservation must be identified and included in a zoning process that assesses the importance of the area to tiger conservation, and delineates minimum standards that must be maintained to retain the quality of existing habitat. . The core network by itself provides for only a minimum number of tigers. To insure survival of the entire population, management must be extended to non-protected areas outside the core area. Therefore, management zones must be delineated for all potential tiger habitat. This zoning process sets priorities as to which areas are most important, and acknowledges that there are some areas not suitable for occupation by tigers. Since different sections of the core area will have various levels of protection (some will be zapovedniks, some national parks, some ecological corridors) zoning must be conducted for lands both inside and outside the core area. Thirdly, all important tiger habitat must be interconnected. A system of ecological corridors and protected areas is essential to avoid fragmentation of the Russian Far East Amur tiger population.
             
              Connectivity of the entire population will avoid the impact of genetic impoverishment and reduce the chances of localized extirpation of small, isolated subpopulations resulting, eventually, in loss of the entire metapopulation.
             
              Our experience is based on 3 - years' intensive research of tiger movements, home range size, and behavior based on a radio tracking study in Sikhote-Alin Reserve and in southwest Primorye - the first research of its kind for the Amur tiger. The Hornoker Wildlife Institute also has extensive experience in developing conservation plans for other large carnivores (for example, mountain lions, brown bears, jaguars and leopards). Therefore we can help the Russian government to develop a frame work for conservation that has worked for other large carnivores in other countries. It will of course be necessary for the Russian specialists to adopt those components of this program that are feasible in the unique conditions of the Russian Far East. We hope that we can work together towards that goal. We realize that a comprehensive conservation plan for the Amur tiger will involve many components: anti-poaching, ungulate management, enforcement of CITES regulations, research, environment!
             
              Al education, as well as habitat protection. This plan is limited to the discussion of the criteria needed to select habitat for protection, a proposal on what lands should be incorporated into a core area, recommendations for zoning lands for tiger conservation, and a proposal on how planning should proceed in the future.
             
              This proposal is split into five sections: 1) an introduction; 2) a discussion of the criteria that must be considered in developing a land-use plan for tiger conservation; 3) a description of a proposed core network of protected areas; 4) a description of additional lands that must be zoned for tiger conservation; and, 5) a discussion of the future work that needs to be done to successfully carry out this plan.
             
              A comprehensive land - use plan for tiger conservation should be based on 7 considerations: 1) long- range planning must account for worst case scenarios; 2) the social structure of tiger populations (home range size and territoriality! will limit potential densities, and must be understood; 3) management of the prey base is essential to survival of the tiger population; 41 a network of protected areas should form a core tiger management zone; 5} connectivity of all protected areas is necessary, and will require development of ecological corridors; 6) the impact of a road system is significant and must tee minimized; 7) the relationship between logging, the timber Industry, and tiger conservation is complex, but must be understood. Each of these considerations is detailed below.
             
              It Is essential that a plan for tiger conservation consider the potential changes in tiger habitat over the long-term. While the forests that provide tiger habitat presently seem relatively secure, it must be remembered that the distribution of the Amur tiger has shrunk enormously from its distribution only 100 years ago, and it must be assumed that unless dramatic action is taken, the trend will continue. Habitat destruction is the primary long-term threat to the survival of the Amur tiger. Therefore, a national planning strategy must consider the long-term threats to tiger conservation, and implement that plan which confronts economic and political realities. Planning must consider what steps are necessary to insure survival of the Amur tiger not only today, but far into the future. Many biologists suggest that protection plans should provide for wildlife protection at least 100 years Into the future.
             
              Most conservation plans for rare animal species are predicated on providing for the needs of the adult female segment of the population. Adult females are the critical component of a population because variation in female reproductive parameters (litter size, age of first breeding, Interval between litters) often are the key factors affecting the reproductive rate of a population. Additionally, pregnant females or those rearing young are often faced with the most narrow ecological constraints and habitat requirements. Although males often exist at lower densities than females (as appears to be the case for Amur tigers), absence of males is rarely a factor limiting reproduction of a population. Therefore, the following information Is oriented towards the needs of female tigers.
             
              Based on 3-years' radio- tracking data from Sikhote-Alin State Reserve, the average home range size of adult females Is approximately 450 km2. This value was estimated for 5 adult females using the 100% minimum convex polygon method. The area of study, since it is a zapovednik, probably represents some of the best remaining habitat for Amur tigers. Throughout tiger range, from India to Russia, home range size is largely dependent on the density of prey species in the region. Therefore, given the heavy exploitation of prey species and poaching of tigers outside of zapovedniks, there are likely few other places in Primorye or Khabarovsk Krais where densities of tigers are likely to be higher than in Sikhote-Alin Reserve (Lazo Reserve being one possible exception). Therefore, we believe that this value provides what is probably a realistic estimate of home range size of adult female tigers in high quality habitat, and may be overly optimistic for much of tiger habitat.
             
              In addition to this estimate of home range size, our available information suggests that, as has been noted by Russian biologists here, and for Bengal tigers in Nepal, adult female tigers are territorial. Therefore, we can expect that every 450 km2 of tiger habitat can maintain only one adult breeding female tiger. These two pieces of information, home range size and territoriality of adult tigresses, are critical in developing a tiger conservation plan. Using this information, we can estimate that high quality tiger habitat will have, on average, 2. 2 adult female tigers per 100,000 ha.
             
              Several studies of food habits (by Abramov, Zhivotchenko, Yudakov and Nikalaev, Kucherenko and the work of the research program in Sikhote-Alin) have demonstrated that throughout most of their range Amur tigers are dependent on wild boar and elk as primary prey species. Both species should occur at high densities in tiger habitat, but given sufficient densities of either prey species, tigers can concentrate on one or the other. Therefore, management programs should be designed to provide quality habitat for elk and/ or wild boar, and reduce hunting levels to insure adequate densities.
             
              For small populations of endangered species, two general rules have been developed by geneticists to prevent genetic deterioration due to inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of genetic diversity. To protect the genetic Integrity of a species for a short period of time (for instance, 50 years) a minimum population of 50 adult breeding animals is required. However, for long-term survival of the population, at least 500 individuals are required. This general rule is complicated by the fact that these estimates are actually based on "effective population size", which depends upon, among other things, the relative number of young produced by each male and female that survive to participate in the breeding of the next generation. Therefore, generally more individuals than these baseline estimates imply are required to offset these other variables. Since we do not have the information necessary to estimate the effective population size of the Amur tiger population, we conservatively suggest that the conservation goal should be to protect the core area that would provide for at least 50 adult breeding females, while at the same time protecting total habitat size to provide for at least 300 adult breeding females. The above information on home range size (450 Km2 per adult female) and territoriality suggest that, to maintain a population of 50 adult breeding females, at least 22,500 Km2 of high-quality tiger habitat are required, while to provide for 300 breeding females, 135,000 km2 is necessary. Even the first objective (50 adult breeding females) is not easily obtained. Since creation of one protected area of such size is impossible in upon, among Amur tiger range that will be essential to develop a network of protected areas that together act to provide a core region that protects a core population of tigers. As a first approximation, we provide a very crude estimate of adult female tiger density in each element of a proposed network to model the potential estimate of an effective a core network could protect. Since tiger density over much of Primorye and Khabarovsk is much lower than our estimate based on tigers living in Sikhote-Alin Reserve, the estimate of tiger density on units of the core network must be adjusted to avoid overly optimistic estimates of number tigers. We provide a very crude estimate of tiger density in units proposed for projection Due to these adjustments the total area required to be larger than if we assumed all habitat would be maintained at the same level of protection (zapovedniks). Meeting the second objective (300 breeding females) is difficult, but not impossible. There are approximately 15 million ha (150,000 km2 ) of tiger habitat remaining in Primorye and Khabarovsk Krais. If this entire region were high quality habitat, it would provide for 333 adult females. However, much of this area is relatively poor habitat. This situation therefore requires that no further habitat loss can be allowed because It severely reduces the chances of long-term survival of the endangered population. A zoning process that protects all existing tiger habitat is therefore essential.
             
              To maintain the possibility of genetic exchange vital to long-term viability of the Amur tiger population, the network of protected areas, as well as all other areas managed for tigers, must be Interconnected. Therefore, each core area, as well as areas designated as important Tiger Management Zone (see below) must be interconnected. This will require development of ecological corridors to insure protection of habitat and the possibility of movement of tigers between management zones. Narrow ecological corridors not sufficient for tigers. Corridors for tigers must be wide: large enough to sustain prey populations and large enough to sustain tigers while living in and traveling through corridors.
             
              A critical impact on tigers is the development of a road system that is usually created for purposes of logging. These roads, once created, provide easy access not only to loggers, but many other people. It has been well documented in many parts of the world that when roads are created in formerly roadless areas, the density of game animals decreasing substantially. Roads provide easy access for both legal and illegal activity. Poachers have more opportunities to shoot tigers and their prey, and more prey will be legally harvested in areas that were formerly "sanctuaries" for tigers due to the absence of roads. Furthermore, as the number of vehicles using these roads increases, so does the mortality risk to animals. in some regions of North America, roadkills (animals hit by cars) have been the greatest source of mortality for large carnivores. Although few specialists in the Russian Far East consider roads an Important issue, the reduction of the number of roads, and/or restricted access to roads, should be one of the key management recommendations of a national strategy for tiger conservation. It is acknowledged that roads must be created to provide access for logging activities. However, once logging is completed in a region, these roads should be partially destroyed, or made Impassable for vehicles. Destruction of a small portion of the road would be a relatively inexpensive procedure for logging ventures, and would leave most of the road intact when logging resumes during the next harvest rotation.
             
              Tiger Relationship To Logging And Forestry Management Practices
             
              Logging is not necessarily bad for tigers. Selective cutting, as it is practiced in many regions of the Russian Far East, creates small openings that produce food for elk. However, large clearcuts will be detrimental to elk, wild boar, and tigers. Large clear-cuts should be forbidden in Primorye and southern Khabarovsk.
             
              Forests should be managed to increase the amount of old- growth Korean pine forests, which provide important habitat for wild boar (prey of tiger) as well as many other animal species. Large stands of Korean pine may be created by linking small stands through a land-use planning process at the local level. Although harvest of Korean pine has been outlawed this species is still being cut and exported. Both legal and illegal harvest of Korean pine must be stopped.
             
              The relationship between tigers and open lands (hayfields clearcuts, and other openings) will be an important consideration In land-use planning. Based on experiences here and in Nepal (where studies of the Bengal tiger have been conducted), tigers generally avoid unforested areas fields, or open ground unless there is a thick understory of shrubs or grasses. It is therefore likely that they would also avoid large clearcuts. Tiger habitat is generally forested. While it is clear that clearcuts will not provide good habitat for tigers in the short term, it is difficult to determine what exact percentage of land must be maintained as forested to be suitable for tigers. One of the radio-collared tigers being studied by the Siberian Tiger Project near Terney lives in a region where approximately 20% of her home range is in farmland, hayfields, or other open areas. Although this does not seem to affect her behavior, she has the largest home range of all females studied, and she has killed livestock every year. Depredation of domestic animals, and the high amount of human activity in her home range makes her susceptible to being shot by a farmer or hunter. It is likely that when the percent of forested land becomes less than 60%, the network of agricultural fields, human habitations, and disturbances may make an area unsuitable for tigers, I or that the high degree of interaction with people (and the resultant livestock killing) would make the presence of tigers unacceptable. To be conservative, it is recommended that areas being managed for tigers in the Russian Far East maintain at least 70% of the area as forested. Clearcutting should not be allowed in forests managed for tigers, and all open, non-forested areas should be as small as possible. In areas managed primarily for tigers, 90% of land should be forested.
Tiger Essay 
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