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We are at a time where our society is able to bring the full force of scientific and technological advances to reduce the number of human tragedy and economic losses due to natural disasters. Although, we must take an integrated and diverse approach to disaster reduction, bringing new emphasis to research on disasters, on pre-disaster planning, and on preparedness. It is up to us to include disaster education and preparedness of the public as well as early warning systems, in which people at risk receive, understand, and act upon the warning information conveyed. Natural Disasters are the consequences or effects of natural hazards. They represent human, property and economic losses and they signify a serious breakdown in sustainability and disruption of economic and social progress. The overwhelming number of dead or seriously injured and homeless people after the occurrence of a natural disaster and the massive amount of money to be spent for reconstruction and rehabilitation equates to a natural disaster. They are nothing else but extreme environmental events that impact human activities. Hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are the most frequents threats, as well as flooding, tornadoes, and droughts, which are also prevalent (UNESCO). Because of these natural disasters there are one million people around the world that die each decade and millions more homeless each year (FEMA). Also, economic damages from natural disasters have tripled in the past 30 years, rising from 40 billion in the 1960s to 120 billion in the 1980s (FEMA). In order to distinguish the amount of help needed after a natural disaster the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization has separated the amount of damages into three categories: direct, indirect, and secondary effects. Direct effects are the immediate but not necessarily the worst effects on a country. These encompass the lose of property of state, business enterprises and population, damages to social and economic infrastructures and the losses of capital stock and inventories. The indirect effect results from the decline in production and in the provision services, loss of revenue due to disruption of production and services, and increased costs of goods and services. The effects that may appear some time after the disaster are the secondary effects. These include decreases in economic growth and development, increased loss of revenue due to disruption of production and services, and increased costs of goods and services (Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project). It is these three terms that banks use to survey the amount of revenue needed to sustain the natural disaster stricken countries. The main purpose of the Bank's participation in the field of natural and unexpected disasters is to assist member countries in effectively protecting and resuming their socio-economic development. The Bank also seeks to assist member countries in taking appropriate measures to reduce or avoid losses from all disasters. At their request, the Bank will participate in enhancing member countries' capacity to take into account their vulnerability to disasters in their development projects and programs and to respond to disasters. Specific objectives are to prepare for, and to prevent and/or mitigate, the hazards that cause loss of life and property and damage to the economic infrastructure and the environment. In assisting borrowing countries affected by disasters, three stages of an event are distinguished: before, during and after its occurrence (Inter-American Development Bank). In the United States related insurance steps have already taken place. A national-insurance plan provides real estate owners with adequate, affordable protection against a variety of natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes, according to a representative for the National Association of Realtors. Federal legislation has recently created this nationwide natural disaster insurance. Implemented by Arthur Sterbcow, a Realtor from Louisiana and a member of NARs board of directors, The Homeowners Insurance Availability Act, authorizes the establishment of a federal reinsurance program for state disaster programs (Riggs, Trisha). Although insurance is just one of the ways that aid after a natural disaster, being prepared before or during a natural disaster is preferred. In spite of all of that Mother Nature has thrown our way it is amazing to discover that, on the whole, we still remain under-educated about and even unaware of the natural hazards that can completely alter lives in a matter of minutes. There are three areas where our efforts should be concentrated for mitigation: improving hazard awareness, improving understanding of mitigation, and making disaster risk management an essential part of the development planning process. In recent years, under the guidance and leadership of the International Decade for the Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), scientists around the world have worked to develop techniques to improve natural disaster hazard awareness. One such technique are maps showing historical earthquake or hurricane activity. Such maps already have been compiled in some regions. For example, four zones usually represent seismic risk in accordance to expectancy of earthquake damage. According to this zoning, areas are designated that have no reasonable expectancy of earthquake damage; areas where minor damage can be expected; areas where moderate damage can be expected; and finally areas where destructive earthquakes can be expected. Hurricane maps may show their customary tracks, seasonal and chronological occurrences, and areas of past impact. Similar maps can be prepared for other natural hazards. Statistical techniques have been used to show the specific probability of occurrence of selected hazard parameters in a specified time interval. For example, maps showing the origin of the disaster and the recurrence frequency can be determined from a historical database. Additionally, we need to emphasize planning for the mitigation of natural disasters through a good understanding, not only of the physical nature of the phenomena and their manifestations in each geographical locality, but also of each area's combined physical, social, and cultural factors. Specific instructions are provided for reducing disaster-related fatalities, injuries, and property destruction through correct planning and public education, construction, engineering, and land utilization. Some techniques are summarized for determining disaster risks for selected areas, rural as well as metropolitan areas. Public education and understanding on what kinds of problems and other associated hazards that can be expected during and after a major disaster strikes an area is also important. This emphasizes a need to address social, emotional and psychological problems that may result in the post-disaster phase, particularly among children. Concluding that educational programs that teach disaster awareness and safety measures should be an integral part of disaster reduction and preparedness. Since the largest obstacle for mitigation of natural disaster is being uninformed, another tool of mitigation used to improve understanding of natural disasters is being implemented in the schools. Teachers and educators concerned with natural hazards can play a very important role in disaster planning, preparedness and education. Also, teachers play a very important role in reducing the adverse impact of disasters and assist in post-disaster recovery. They can be very effective in such efforts by educating their students on the perils of natural hazards, and by preparing them on what course of action to take when a particular disaster strikes. Such analysis of disaster risk can be used by teachers for assessing hazard risks in areas where schools are located to plan for the safety of their students. Through specific guidelines on the preparation of educational and preparedness materials minimizes the effects of hazards and alleviates potential problems in schools, colleges, at home, and at the places of work. Further concluding that disaster preparedness and education at the grass-root level is the best means of reducing the effects of disasters (Pararas, George). Although these non-structural plans are extremely important, scientific and technological methods of mitigation are currently becoming just as practical. For certain disasters warning systems exist which can drastically reduce the loss of life and property. Unfortunately, this is not true for some disasters that strike without any warning, such as earthquakes. Earthquake prediction is still in the research stage. Furthermore, the only valid earthquake prediction may be the short-term prediction based on precursor events that occur in months, weeks, days, or hours before the earthquake strikes. Such methods are not sufficiently developed to be of value for warning purposes. By studying past seismic activity, geologists can often speculate on what controls the dynamics of earthquakes and make predictions (Pararas, George). Volcanoes are similar in that they can be difficult to determine when they will erupt. Although, in some cases volcanic eruptions can be roughly predicted days advance, usually through monitoring precursor events. Tsunamis are one of the few natural disasters that can be tracked from start to finish. In 1965, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) accepted an offer made by the United States to expand its existing Tsunami Warning Center in Honolulu to become the headquarters of an International Pacific Tsunami Warning System. At the same time accepted the offer of other IOC member countries to integrate their existing facilities and communications into this System. Twenty-eight nations are now members of this international tsunami-warning network, which utilizes numerous seismic and tidal stations throughout the Pacific Ocean and provides tsunami watches and warnings for all of the Pacific. In recent years, the System has been very reliable. Finally, the most effective warning systems lies with the hurricanes, since we can watch them developing over months in advance before they cause any damage. Hurricane activity is very closely monitored by most all the Pacific countries. Weather information is regularly transmitted over the WWVH and other weather broadcasts. Any hurricane activity is monitored and photographed continuously by satellites and transmitted to many earth stations. Most of the Pacific Ocean is covered by WWVH, which gets its information from the U.S. National Weather Service. Warning information of potentially hazardous approaching tropical cyclones will include information on the storm type, central pressure given in millimeters, observed wind speeds within the storm, storm location, speed and direction of movement, extent of the affected area, visibility, and state of the sea as well as any other information that may be available. . Warnings are broadcasted on prespecified radio frequencies immediately upon receipt of information and at regular intervals thereafter. Frequencies, channels and transmission intervals vary from region to region. Usually the broadcasts intervals are every six hours, but more frequent time intervals may be provided for regions in the path of a storm or a tropical cyclone. Satellite photographs of the storm or the tropical cyclone are also available on fax machines. For most other disaster there may be a brief cushion of time in having some kind of warning. Thus for tsunamis, hurricanes or other weather-related hazards, there are adequate warning systems The International Decade on Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) has brought into focus the need for extensive planning, in preparedness and education. Although there are not established warning systems for other types of disasters and Scientific Institutions and Civil Defense authorities serve as the warning centers for other miscellaneous disasters in each threatened region. Under the guidance of the IDNDR program and early warning systems, losses of life and property from disasters are being drastically reduced. There are other structural techniques that are becoming safer and more economic with today's scientific break-throughs. These techniques begin with the construction of buildings, since 75% of injuries occur in some type of structure. The Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction (IIPLR) is one company leading the way in research and development of safer structures. Land use policy and decision makers need to understand the vulnerability of individual properties to natural hazards, and consider that vulnerability in their land use, development and construction decisions. Consumers (owners and developers) have to be educated about the natural hazards associated with building sites and utilize this information when selecting such sites. IIPLR will work with other partners to develop incentives for not building in high-risk areas or for using special mitigation techniques. These initial project will be to promote the adoption of procedures by state and local governments requiring consideration of natural hazards vulnerability in making land use decisions (Ryland, G. Harvey). These new structural technologies are extremely complex. A new closed-open-loop optimal control algorithm, which is derived by minimizing the sum of the quadratic time-dependent performance index and the seismic energy input to the structural system, is proposed to establish a practical control system for high-raise buildings. The control law provides feasible control algorithms that can be easily implemented for some types of control system such as the active mass driver system and hybrid control system consisting of a base isolation system connected with active tendon devices (Ryland, G. Harvey). Basically saying that the high-rise steel skeletal should have shock absorbers for seismic energy. Although many of todays buildings are not up to natural disaster code, the United States is leading the way with the research, development, and even by example. Losses due to natural and man-made disasters will continue to increase because of our continuing population growth and the increase of the concentration of growth in vulnerable areas such as coastal regions, flood plains, and seismically active zones. As a result, more lives will be lost, more property will be destroyed, and the social and economic fabric of disaster-prone communities will be disrupted. But this does not have to be so. The global scope of disasters requires that we coordinate our efforts for their mitigation on an international basis. Advances in the science and technology of hazard mitigation now provide the means to reduce significantly losses from natural hazards. But we have to commit ourselves to understanding these hazards better and to applying techniques that reduce our vulnerability. We need to continue exploring the feasibility of concerted scientific and engineering efforts in reducing the loss of life and property through programs of public educationion and of effective early warning systems. The development of early warning systems with an adequate array of monitoring instruments for the purpose of collecting necessary data and information for disaster evaluation is necessary for establishing relative potential risks. Public educational efforts and rapid communication networks are needed for transmitting information on potential disaster risks and for warning purposes in order to save lives and minimize damage to property. Proper coordination of national efforts in developed and developing countries can result in substantial results in disaster mitigation by the end of the century. International efforts should lay equal emphasis on scientific programs, engineering capabilities, and in the national and international response to humanitarian and economic needs, particularly those of the developing countries. Such activities are presently being carried out by participating countries through the creation of national committees, and by the organizations of the UN system, organizations such as UNESCO, UNDRO, UNEP, IOC, UNDP, only to mention a few.
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Analysis essay on How Natural Disasters Happen and How to Prevent Them
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Analysis Essay On How Natural Disasters Happen And How To Prevent Them

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              We are at a time where our society is able to bring the full force of scientific and technological advances to reduce the number of human tragedy and economic losses due to natural disasters. Although, we must take an integrated and diverse approach to disaster reduction, bringing new emphasis to research on disasters, on pre-disaster planning, and on preparedness. It is up to us to include disaster education and preparedness of the public as well as early warning systems, in which people at risk receive, understand, and act upon the warning information conveyed.
             
             
              Natural Disasters are the consequences or effects of natural hazards. They represent human, property and economic losses and they signify a serious breakdown in sustainability and disruption of economic and social progress. The overwhelming number of dead or seriously injured and homeless people after the occurrence of a natural disaster and the massive amount of money to be spent for reconstruction and rehabilitation equates to a natural disaster. They are nothing else but extreme environmental events that impact human activities. Hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are the most frequents threats, as well as flooding, tornadoes, and droughts, which are also prevalent (UNESCO). Because of these natural disasters there are one million people around the world that die each decade and millions more homeless each year (FEMA). Also, economic damages from natural disasters have tripled in the past 30 years, rising from 40 billion in the 1960s to 120 billion in the 1980s (FEMA).
             
              In order to distinguish the amount of help needed after a natural disaster the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization has separated the amount of damages into three categories: direct, indirect, and secondary effects. Direct effects are the immediate but not necessarily the worst effects on a country. These encompass the lose of property of state, business enterprises and population, damages to social and economic infrastructures and the losses of capital stock and inventories. The indirect effect results from the decline in production and in the provision services, loss of revenue due to disruption of production and services, and increased costs of goods and services. The effects that may appear some time after the disaster are the secondary effects. These include decreases in economic growth and development, increased loss of revenue due to disruption of production and services, and increased costs of goods and services (Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project).
             
              It is these three terms that banks use to survey the amount of revenue needed to sustain the natural disaster stricken countries. The main purpose of the Bank's participation in the field of natural and unexpected disasters is to assist member countries in effectively protecting and resuming their socio-economic development. The Bank also seeks to assist member countries in taking appropriate measures to reduce or avoid losses from all disasters. At their request, the Bank will participate in enhancing member countries' capacity to take into account their vulnerability to disasters in their development projects and programs and to respond to disasters. Specific objectives are to prepare for, and to prevent and/or mitigate, the hazards that cause loss of life and property and damage to the economic infrastructure and the environment. In assisting borrowing countries affected by disasters, three stages of an event are distinguished: before, during and after its occurrence (Inter-American Development Bank). In the United States related insurance steps have already taken place. A national-insurance plan provides real estate owners with adequate, affordable protection against a variety of natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes, according to a representative for the National Association of Realtors. Federal legislation has recently created this nationwide natural disaster insurance. Implemented by Arthur Sterbcow, a Realtor from Louisiana and a member of NARs board of directors, The Homeowners Insurance Availability Act, authorizes the establishment of a federal reinsurance program for state disaster programs (Riggs, Trisha). Although insurance is just one of the ways that aid after a natural disaster, being prepared before or during a natural disaster is preferred.
             
              In spite of all of that Mother Nature has thrown our way it is amazing to discover that, on the whole, we still remain under-educated about and even unaware of the natural hazards that can completely alter lives in a matter of minutes. There are three areas where our efforts should be concentrated for mitigation: improving hazard awareness, improving understanding of mitigation, and making disaster risk management an essential part of the development planning process.
             
              In recent years, under the guidance and leadership of the International Decade for the Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), scientists around the world have worked to develop techniques to improve natural disaster hazard awareness. One such technique are maps showing historical earthquake or hurricane activity. Such maps already have been compiled in some regions. For example, four zones usually represent seismic risk in accordance to expectancy of earthquake damage. According to this zoning, areas are designated that have no reasonable expectancy of earthquake damage; areas where minor damage can be expected; areas where moderate damage can be expected; and finally areas where destructive earthquakes can be expected. Hurricane maps may show their customary tracks, seasonal and chronological occurrences, and areas of past impact. Similar maps can be prepared for other natural hazards. Statistical techniques have been used to show the specific probability of occurrence of selected hazard parameters in a specified time interval. For example, maps showing the origin of the disaster and the recurrence frequency can be determined from a historical database.
             
              Additionally, we need to emphasize planning for the mitigation of natural disasters through a good understanding, not only of the physical nature of the phenomena and their manifestations in each geographical locality, but also of each area's combined physical, social, and cultural factors. Specific instructions are provided for reducing disaster-related fatalities, injuries, and property destruction through correct planning and public education, construction, engineering, and land utilization. Some techniques are summarized for determining disaster risks for selected areas, rural as well as metropolitan areas. Public education and understanding on what kinds of problems and other associated hazards that can be expected during and after a major disaster strikes an area is also important. This emphasizes a need to address social, emotional and psychological problems that may result in the post-disaster phase, particularly among children. Concluding that educational programs that teach disaster awareness and safety measures should be an integral part of disaster reduction and preparedness.
             
              Since the largest obstacle for mitigation of natural disaster is being uninformed, another tool of mitigation used to improve understanding of natural disasters is being implemented in the schools. Teachers and educators concerned with natural hazards can play a very important role in disaster planning, preparedness and education. Also, teachers play a very important role in reducing the adverse impact of disasters and assist in post-disaster recovery. They can be very effective in such efforts by educating their students on the perils of natural hazards, and by preparing them on what course of action to take when a particular disaster strikes. Such analysis of disaster risk can be used by teachers for assessing hazard risks in areas where schools are located to plan for the safety of their students. Through specific guidelines on the preparation of educational and preparedness materials minimizes the effects of hazards and alleviates potential problems in schools, colleges, at home, and at the places of work. Further concluding that disaster preparedness and education at the grass-root level is the best means of reducing the effects of disasters (Pararas, George).
             
              Although these non-structural plans are extremely important, scientific and technological methods of mitigation are currently becoming just as practical. For certain disasters warning systems exist which can drastically reduce the loss of life and property. Unfortunately, this is not true for some disasters that strike without any warning, such as earthquakes. Earthquake prediction is still in the research stage. Furthermore, the only valid earthquake prediction may be the short-term prediction based on precursor events that occur in months, weeks, days, or hours before the earthquake strikes. Such methods are not sufficiently developed to be of value for warning purposes. By studying past seismic activity, geologists can often speculate on what controls the dynamics of earthquakes and make predictions (Pararas, George). Volcanoes are similar in that they can be difficult to determine when they will erupt. Although, in some cases volcanic eruptions can be roughly predicted days advance, usually through monitoring precursor events. Tsunamis are one of the few natural disasters that can be tracked from start to finish. In 1965, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) accepted an offer made by the United States to expand its existing Tsunami Warning Center in Honolulu to become the headquarters of an International Pacific Tsunami Warning System. At the same time accepted the offer of other IOC member countries to integrate their existing facilities and communications into this System. Twenty-eight nations are now members of this international tsunami-warning network, which utilizes numerous seismic and tidal stations throughout the Pacific Ocean and provides tsunami watches and warnings for all of the Pacific. In recent years, the System has been very reliable. Finally, the most effective warning systems lies with the hurricanes, since we can watch them developing over months in advance before they cause any damage. Hurricane activity is very closely monitored by most all the Pacific countries. Weather information is regularly transmitted over the WWVH and other weather broadcasts. Any hurricane activity is monitored and photographed continuously by satellites and transmitted to many earth stations. Most of the Pacific Ocean is covered by WWVH, which gets its information from the U. S. National Weather Service. Warning information of potentially hazardous approaching tropical cyclones will include information on the storm type, central pressure given in millimeters, observed wind speeds within the storm, storm location, speed and direction of movement, extent of the affected area, visibility, and state of the sea as well as any other information that may be available. . Warnings are broadcasted on prespecified radio frequencies immediately upon receipt of information and at regular intervals thereafter. Frequencies, channels and transmission intervals vary from region to region. Usually the broadcasts intervals are every six hours, but more frequent time intervals may be provided for regions in the path of a storm or a tropical cyclone. Satellite photographs of the storm or the tropical cyclone are also available on fax machines. For most other disaster there may be a brief cushion of time in having some kind of warning. Thus for tsunamis, hurricanes or other weather-related hazards, there are adequate warning systems The International Decade on Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) has brought into focus the need for extensive planning, in preparedness and education. Although there are not established warning systems for other types of disasters and Scientific Institutions and Civil Defense authorities serve as the warning centers for other miscellaneous disasters in each threatened region. Under the guidance of the IDNDR program and early warning systems, losses of life and property from disasters are being drastically reduced.
             
              There are other structural techniques that are becoming safer and more economic with today's scientific break-throughs. These techniques begin with the construction of buildings, since 75% of injuries occur in some type of structure. The Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction (IIPLR) is one company leading the way in research and development of safer structures. Land use policy and decision makers need to understand the vulnerability of individual properties to natural hazards, and consider that vulnerability in their land use, development and construction decisions. Consumers (owners and developers) have to be educated about the natural hazards associated with building sites and utilize this information when selecting such sites. IIPLR will work with other partners to develop incentives for not building in high-risk areas or for using special mitigation techniques. These initial project will be to promote the adoption of procedures by state and local governments requiring consideration of natural hazards vulnerability in making land use decisions (Ryland, G. Harvey). These new structural technologies are extremely complex. A new closed-open-loop optimal control algorithm, which is derived by minimizing the sum of the quadratic time-dependent performance index and the seismic energy input to the structural system, is proposed to establish a practical control system for high-raise buildings. The control law provides feasible control algorithms that can be easily implemented for some types of control system such as the active mass driver system and hybrid control system consisting of a base isolation system connected with active tendon devices (Ryland, G. Harvey). Basically saying that the high-rise steel skeletal should have shock absorbers for seismic energy. Although many of todays buildings are not up to natural disaster code, the United States is leading the way with the research, development, and even by example.
             
              Losses due to natural and man-made disasters will continue to increase because of our continuing population growth and the increase of the concentration of growth in vulnerable areas such as coastal regions, flood plains, and seismically active zones. As a result, more lives will be lost, more property will be destroyed, and the social and economic fabric of disaster-prone communities will be disrupted. But this does not have to be so. The global scope of disasters requires that we coordinate our efforts for their mitigation on an international basis. Advances in the science and technology of hazard mitigation now provide the means to reduce significantly losses from natural hazards. But we have to commit ourselves to understanding these hazards better and to applying techniques that reduce our vulnerability. We need to continue exploring the feasibility of concerted scientific and engineering efforts in reducing the loss of life and property through programs of public educationion and of effective early warning systems. The development of early warning systems with an adequate array of monitoring instruments for the purpose of collecting necessary data and information for disaster evaluation is necessary for establishing relative potential risks. Public educational efforts and rapid communication networks are needed for transmitting information on potential disaster risks and for warning purposes in order to save lives and minimize damage to property.
             
              Proper coordination of national efforts in developed and developing countries can result in substantial results in disaster mitigation by the end of the century. International efforts should lay equal emphasis on scientific programs, engineering capabilities, and in the national and international response to humanitarian and economic needs, particularly those of the developing countries. Such activities are presently being carried out by participating countries through the creation of national committees, and by the organizations of the UN system, organizations such as UNESCO, UNDRO, UNEP, IOC, UNDP, only to mention a few.
Natural Disasters Essay 
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