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How can we live longer? According to some professors from Stanford University, changes in your physical activity and other lifeway patterns can increase your longevity. By collecting data from physical examination records based on Harvard alumni, these professors were able to research if certain habits or characteristics during youth lead to chronic illness later in life, more specifically coronary heart disease. The main question that was raised was if individuals of any age can extend their longevity and improve their quality of life by opting for favorable changes in their physical activity habits, personal characteristics, and other lifeway patterns? (Article pg.1) The type of research that was used in this study was applied research. The first step was to have alumni from Harvard University answer a questionnaire and answer a follow-up questionnaire years later. Such questions that alumni answer are how many city blocks they walk, how many stairs they climb, and what different types of sports do they participate in. With that information, the alumnis resting and activity metabolic rates could be calculated. Also factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption are also taken into account. The second step was to place specific alumni into five categories. Those categories included cigarette smokers, heavy weight class, hypertensive/normotensive alcohol drinkers, and early parental deaths. The last step was to review the results from the first questionnaire and the follow-up questionnaire and compare the results. The methods of research were appropriate for meeting the objectives of study. The only flaw with this method of research was based from one specific area of the United States, whereas they should have selected the people from different locations. The results were reported in graph and data form. What could be concluded from the gathered results was that smokers had a 72% higher risk of death than non-smokers, hypertensives had a 34% higher risk than normotensives, and those with a history of chronic diseases in their family were twice as likely to die during the follow-up rather than normal men. These results were expected. Also if all men had at least walked 15 kilometers per week, climbed 20 or more stories, or played moderately vigorous sports, death might have been 9 or 10% lower than occurred. Total abstinence from cigarette smoking might have reduced alumni deaths by 10%, and abstinence from hypertension might have reduced deaths by 8%. (Article, pg.3) The table and graphs that were used could not stand alone without explanation. The findings were somewhat easily understood and presented without bias. The main points of the discussion was that the more active alumni had lower risks of death from all causes during the follow-up intervals, both weight loss and weight gain affected longevity adversely, body mass index and mortality were directly related, higher death rates were found among men who had continued to smoke, and men who quit smoking had a 26% lower rate of mortality than persistent smokers. Also continual participation to sports increases longevity. In summary, the combination of and active lifestyle and a halt to cigarette smoking increased longevity to all ages and made them less susceptible to coronary diseases. It is not too late to adopt a favorable lifestyle habits and improve the quality of life.
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A Harvard Research about Increasing Life Longevity
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A Harvard Research About Increasing Life Longevity

Words: 528    Pages: 2    Paragraphs: 4    Sentences: 28    Read Time: 01:55
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              How can we live longer? According to some professors from Stanford University, changes in your physical activity and other lifeway patterns can increase your longevity. By collecting data from physical examination records based on Harvard alumni, these professors were able to research if certain habits or characteristics during youth lead to chronic illness later in life, more specifically coronary heart disease. The main question that was raised was if individuals of any age can extend their longevity and improve their quality of life by opting for favorable changes in their physical activity habits, personal characteristics, and other lifeway patterns? (Article pg. 1)
             
             
              The type of research that was used in this study was applied research. The first step was to have alumni from Harvard University answer a questionnaire and answer a follow-up questionnaire years later. Such questions that alumni answer are how many city blocks they walk, how many stairs they climb, and what different types of sports do they participate in. With that information, the alumnis resting and activity metabolic rates could be calculated. Also factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption are also taken into account. The second step was to place specific alumni into five categories. Those categories included cigarette smokers, heavy weight class, hypertensive/normotensive alcohol drinkers, and early parental deaths. The last step was to review the results from the first questionnaire and the follow-up questionnaire and compare the results. The methods of research were appropriate for meeting the objectives of study. The only flaw with this method of research was based from one specific area of the United States, whereas they should have selected the people from different locations.
             
              The results were reported in graph and data form. What could be concluded from the gathered results was that smokers had a 72% higher risk of death than non-smokers, hypertensives had a 34% higher risk than normotensives, and those with a history of chronic diseases in their family were twice as likely to die during the follow-up rather than normal men. These results were expected. Also if all men had at least walked 15 kilometers per week, climbed 20 or more stories, or played moderately vigorous sports, death might have been 9 or 10% lower than occurred. Total abstinence from cigarette smoking might have reduced alumni deaths by 10%, and abstinence from hypertension might have reduced deaths by 8%. (Article, pg. 3) The table and graphs that were used could not stand alone without explanation. The findings were somewhat easily understood and presented without bias.
             
              The main points of the discussion was that the more active alumni had lower risks of death from all causes during the follow-up intervals, both weight loss and weight gain affected longevity adversely, body mass index and mortality were directly related, higher death rates were found among men who had continued to smoke, and men who quit smoking had a 26% lower rate of mortality than persistent smokers. Also continual participation to sports increases longevity. In summary, the combination of and active lifestyle and a halt to cigarette smoking increased longevity to all ages and made them less susceptible to coronary diseases. It is not too late to adopt a favorable lifestyle habits and improve the quality of life.
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