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The Hopis are known for their Kachina dolls. These dolls come in different color and textures. The Hopis gives away the Kachina dolls as a gift to young girls and women. The dolls represent the dancers in the village. They are used often within the Hopi people. As centuries passed, the Kachina dolls slowly changed from tools, colors, and garments. These dolls are considered the most sacred and beautiful product among their people. The Hopi Indians are believed to be independent and spiritual people. They originated from the north towards the four corners of the southwest in which today is known as Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona (Washburn, 1980). After leaving the north to the four corners, the Hopi Indians stayed in Arizona from the period of 700 to 1700 A.D. They lived in pit houses made of mud which were one to two feet tall (Washburn, 1980). They were located in the Black Mesa of Arizona, a warm climate area of the Great Plains where they lived on three mesa villages which had high plateau. These mesas are considered the first, second, and third. The first mesa consists of the traditional villages which have the Walpi, Sichomovi, and Hano. The second mesa consists of the cultural center and hotel which consisted of the Shongopovi, Mishongnovi, and Shipaulovi. The third mesa consists of the tribal governments, known as the Oraibi (Simpson, 1953).The Hopis is a group of native tribes that consist of 6,500 people who speaks Shoshonean, a language known as "the peaceful people" (Mora, 1979). The main concentration of this passage states how and why the Hopi Kachina dolls have changed overtime. Kachina dolls play a huge part in the Hopi Indian culture. Kachina dolls are used as an important part in the Hopi way of life and given as prayer for fertility and reminder of the Kachinas (Jacobs, 1980). When the dolls are distributed to girls and women, they are usually displayed on the wall or hung to show as support for the tribe. Throughout the Hopi period, dolls were carved, handmade by a piece of 4"x10" root from dried cottonwood trees, pieces of unwanted roots would be used for the nose, arms, ears, and additional features. Tools that were used for the Kachina carving were hatched or butcher knife which was used to carve out the rough parts of the tree to form the doll. Then the dolls were defined by a finer knife or wood rasp so that the carving of the Kachina would look more realistic (Washburn, 1980). The following parts of the body are put together with a tiny wood peg to hold everything in place, without the use of a tiny wood peg the arms, ears, and any additional traits will fall apart from the body. Kachina dolls were normally carved as a pose of the actual person bending. As time changed, dolls were carved in a naturalistic way whereas, they were carved standing straight. From 1980s until now, tools that are used for carving the Kachina dolls changed also. There are skilled carvers who are experts at shaping the smallest and tiniest piece of the doll (Teiwes, 1991). It has gotten to the point where carving dolls accelerated along with tools changing. As the time change, tools for carving changed such as using chisels, hand and power saws, sandpapers and wood burning iron. As tools changed, there were new glues, stains, varnishes, and oil paints that were used for the carving (Teiwes, 1991). Glue was new material which was used to attach the other pieces together instead of using a peg. However, these tools help the Hopi Indians achieved the realistic effects of the Kachina dolls. Kachina dolls were beautified with colors from paintings to make them look like the actual people who are wearing the mask. The most important part of the doll would be painting the masks because it has the most significant design and had more prominent features of the Kachina (Dockstader, 1985). For instance, if the mask does not look accurate, the doll would not symbolize the Kachina dancers. In most cases, these dolls are first painted with an undercoat of kaolin, a fire-clay that peels off frequently; it was used to help make the doll scruffy. They are then painted with colors, such as malachite that makes blue and green; soot or corn-smut were colors of black; hematite was used for red; and limonite was used for yellow (Simpson, 1953). These colors were native minerals and dyes that are painted onto the dolls so that it can have a symbolic design to the original person. When the doll is being painted, every part of the doll is covered with color of the significant character. Hopis people are careful and gentle with the dye because one mistake can lead to a mess. As generations passed, paintings of the Kachina dolls changed also. The colors for the doll now consist of acrylics being painted over an oil based and pigment which bring a bright, beautiful and lasting color to the doll (Washburn, 1980). The colors were sometimes mixed in order to achieve the right color such as mixing yellow and blue to make green. The legs, arms, and ears are left uncolored so that the doll will have more realistic human features. According to Jacobs, colors of the doll's eyes, mouth, cheeks, and chins were painted with colors. Colors were only added to the clothing, mask, and other additional features. The techniques of painting the dolls were usually defined because of the oil base. It leaves a stain to prevent discoloring. Even though the Kachina dolls were painted in new forms and colors, many of the original colors are still being used. The dolls were very detailed, each doll had feathers or hair for the headpiece; leather, cloth, or yarn for the arms, legs, and waist (Washburn, 1980). They also give the dolls materials such as bows and arrows to give a show of the Kachina dancers holding it. Jewelry was usually painted on the dolls. Sometimes there were thin blue beads that are placed around the dolls neck or waist. The feather for the headpiece comes from a specific bird. In addition, when the materials and everything changed, the Kachina doll garments changed too. The dolls still had jewelry but were upgraded to necklace, bracelets, and earrings. In this case, the jewelry was worn for accessories of the dolls and decorations. Cloths and yarn are now replaced by commercial furs which are worn around the neck of the Kachina dolls (Washburn, 1980). As for the feathered headpiece it still remains as the only one that didn't change because the specific feathers used are from a specific bird. Among the changes, the Kachina dolls were also formed with muscles that had cloths down the arm length to the fingers which shows that the Kachina was muscular (Jacobs, 1980). Many of the items used on the dolls were replaced with the discovery of modern materials. With the change of the Kachina dolls, there are more fine details that can be seen from them. In conclusion, many of the Hopi Indians were able to adjust to the new changes in the dolls. These changes brought drastic transformation to the Hopi Indians. The dolls looked modern because of the new customs that were placed on them. The Hopi carving, garment, and painting of the Kachina dolls changed greatly because of the tools, colors, and materials that were altered. However, Kachina dolls have been popular from many centuries until now because people collect them for memories, designs, and to be carried on. Kachina dolls cost from $75 to $300 and above (Jacobs, 1980). But there are people who will purchase the dolls for the amount it costs and place it in a safe area such as museums and shelves.
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Overview essay of the Hopi Kachina Indians
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Overview Essay Of The Hopi Kachina Indians

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              The Hopis are known for their Kachina dolls. These dolls come in different color and textures. The Hopis gives away the Kachina dolls as a gift to young girls and women. The dolls represent the dancers in the village. They are used often within the Hopi people. As centuries passed, the Kachina dolls slowly changed from tools, colors, and garments. These dolls are considered the most sacred and beautiful product among their people. The Hopi Indians are believed to be independent and spiritual people. They originated from the north towards the four corners of the southwest in which today is known as Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona (Washburn, 1980). After leaving the north to the four corners, the Hopi Indians stayed in Arizona from the period of 700 to 1700 A. D. They lived in pit houses made of mud which were one to two feet tall (Washburn, 1980). They were located in the Black Mesa of Arizona, a warm climate area of the Great Plains where they lived on three mesa villages which had high plateau. These mesas are considered the first, second, and third. The first mesa consists of the traditional villages which have the Walpi, Sichomovi, and Hano. The second mesa consists of the cultural center and hotel which consisted of the Shongopovi, Mishongnovi, and Shipaulovi. The third mesa consists of the tribal governments, known as the Oraibi (Simpson, 1953). The Hopis is a group of native tribes that consist of 6,500 people who speaks Shoshonean, a language known as "the peaceful people" (Mora, 1979). The main concentration of this passage states how and why the Hopi Kachina dolls have changed overtime.
             
             
              Kachina dolls play a huge part in the Hopi Indian culture. Kachina dolls are used as an important part in the Hopi way of life and given as prayer for fertility and reminder of the Kachinas (Jacobs, 1980). When the dolls are distributed to girls and women, they are usually displayed on the wall or hung to show as support for the tribe. Throughout the Hopi period, dolls were carved, handmade by a piece of 4"x10" root from dried cottonwood trees, pieces of unwanted roots would be used for the nose, arms, ears, and additional features. Tools that were used for the Kachina carving were hatched or butcher knife which was used to carve out the rough parts of the tree to form the doll. Then the dolls were defined by a finer knife or wood rasp so that the carving of the Kachina would look more realistic (Washburn, 1980). The following parts of the body are put together with a tiny wood peg to hold everything in place, without the use of a tiny wood peg the arms, ears, and any additional traits will fall apart from the body. Kachina dolls were normally carved as a pose of the actual person bending. As time changed, dolls were carved in a naturalistic way whereas, they were carved standing straight. From 1980s until now, tools that are used for carving the Kachina dolls changed also. There are skilled carvers who are experts at shaping the smallest and tiniest piece of the doll (Teiwes, 1991). It has gotten to the point where carving dolls accelerated along with tools changing.
             
              As the time change, tools for carving changed such as using chisels, hand and power saws, sandpapers and wood burning iron. As tools changed, there were new glues, stains, varnishes, and oil paints that were used for the carving (Teiwes, 1991).
             
              Glue was new material which was used to attach the other pieces together instead of using a peg. However, these tools help the Hopi Indians achieved the realistic effects of the Kachina dolls.
             
              Kachina dolls were beautified with colors from paintings to make them look like the actual people who are wearing the mask. The most important part of the doll would be painting the masks because it has the most significant design and had more prominent features of the Kachina (Dockstader, 1985). For instance, if the mask does not look accurate, the doll would not symbolize the Kachina dancers. In most cases, these dolls are first painted with an undercoat of kaolin, a fire-clay that peels off frequently; it was used to help make the doll scruffy. They are then painted with colors, such as malachite that makes blue and green; soot or corn-smut were colors of black; hematite was used for red; and limonite was used for yellow (Simpson, 1953). These colors were native minerals and dyes that are painted onto the dolls so that it can have a symbolic design to the original person. When the doll is being painted, every part of the doll is covered with color of the significant character. Hopis people are careful and gentle with the dye because one mistake can lead to a mess. As generations passed, paintings of the Kachina dolls changed also. The colors for the doll now consist of acrylics being painted over an oil based and pigment which bring a bright, beautiful and lasting color to the doll (Washburn, 1980). The colors were sometimes mixed in order to achieve the right color such as mixing yellow and blue to make green. The legs, arms, and ears are left uncolored so that the doll will have more realistic human features. According to Jacobs, colors of the doll's eyes, mouth, cheeks, and chins were painted with colors. Colors were only added to the clothing, mask, and other additional features. The techniques of painting the dolls were usually defined because of the oil base. It leaves a stain to prevent discoloring. Even though the Kachina dolls were painted in new forms and colors, many of the original colors are still being used.
             
              The dolls were very detailed, each doll had feathers or hair for the headpiece; leather, cloth, or yarn for the arms, legs, and waist (Washburn, 1980). They also give the dolls materials such as bows and arrows to give a show of the Kachina dancers holding it. Jewelry was usually painted on the dolls. Sometimes there were thin blue beads that are placed around the dolls neck or waist. The feather for the headpiece comes from a specific bird. In addition, when the materials and everything changed, the Kachina doll garments changed too. The dolls still had jewelry but were upgraded to necklace, bracelets, and earrings. In this case, the jewelry was worn for accessories of the dolls and decorations. Cloths and yarn are now replaced by commercial furs which are worn around the neck of the Kachina dolls (Washburn, 1980). As for the feathered headpiece it still remains as the only one that didn't change because the specific feathers used are from a specific bird. Among the changes, the Kachina dolls were also formed with muscles that had cloths down the arm length to the fingers which shows that the Kachina was muscular (Jacobs, 1980). Many of the items used on the dolls were replaced with the discovery of modern materials. With the change of the Kachina dolls, there are more fine details that can be seen from them.
             
              In conclusion, many of the Hopi Indians were able to adjust to the new changes in the dolls. These changes brought drastic transformation to the Hopi Indians. The dolls looked modern because of the new customs that were placed on them. The Hopi carving, garment, and painting of the Kachina dolls changed greatly because of the tools, colors, and materials that were altered. However, Kachina dolls have been popular from many centuries until now because people collect them for memories, designs, and to be carried on. Kachina dolls cost from $75 to $300 and above (Jacobs, 1980). But there are people who will purchase the dolls for the amount it costs and place it in a safe area such as museums and shelves.
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