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The Great Mississippi flood is cited in contexts as one of the greatest and most devastating disasters in the history of the U.S. The flood was caused by heavy rainfall that caused havoc in the areas around the Mississippi River. The rains lasted a period of approximately two months from April to June. The tributaries of the Mississippi river were also flooded causing disastrous results in Kansas, Oklahoma, Illinois and Kentucky. The floodwaters from the Mississippi river had great impacts on different states causing numerous deaths and covering large plantations. The swelling waters swept away many houses and other important property. The effects were so adverse that it became known as the great Mississippi flood of 1927. A comprehensive emergency management program is a combination of all aspects related to hazards and disasters, which need an emergency response. The program consists of four phases namely, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery (Bullock, Coppola &Haddow, 2008)). The discussion below focuses on the great Mississippi flood in terms of a comprehensive emergency management perspective. Mitigation is a process of identifying and performing actions that can help prevent or reduce the occurrence of an emergency. These actions will also help in greatly reducing the effects of an emergency. The Mississippi river had been known to burst its banks severally and the government had taken action to prevent the occurrence of floods in later years. There was the creation of the Mississippi River Commission whose role was to assess the flooding problem caused by the river and come up with lasting solutions (Barry, 1997). In addition, there was the formation of the Weather Bureau, which was responsible for assessing weather conditions and giving reliable weather forecasts to warn the people and the government on the likeliness of a flood. The American Army Corps of Engineers was also delegated the work of designing a lasting solution for the floodwaters. The Corps created a 'levees only' policy that focused on building levees along the Mississippi river to protect the people around it (Rubin & Public Entity Institute, 2007). This was done along the lower Mississippi river, for all the six states where the river passed through. The building of levees was seen as an adequate measure to prevent raging waters from breaking into the land where people lived or even farmland. The Army Corps of Engineers were opposed to the idea of building floodways and spillways arguing that levees were the only way to prevent the occurrence of a flood. The levees were said to be strong enough to hold any amount of pressure from the water. On the other hand, the Army Corps reported that if the water pressure and volume increased, the river channel would become deeper reducing the pressure placed on the levees. Preparedness All countries and government agencies have to make plans of how to handle an emergency. The occurrence of any disaster requires the implementation of prior plans in terms of rescue operations and saving people's lives. In preparation for an emergency like the great Mississippi flood, the government had set up the American National Red Cross, whose responsibility was to aid in rescue operations (Thornton, 2007). The agency also had the responsibility of distributing food supplies and water to the affected people. In addition, the American National Red Cross personnel were trained to offer the required medical aid to the people. Different plans had also been made to collect funds that would be used to respond to an emergency. The U.S Army Corps of Engineers were also well trained for evacuation missions to rescue the affected people. The government also had created a way to warn the people incase of a disaster. News of a disaster would be disseminated to people using news channels and other media channels. This would act as a warning for people to move from the affected areas. These actions might seem like efficient ways to deal with a flood, but many people argue that not enough was done to prepare for the Great Mississippi flood (Lal, 2007). There have been many arguments that the government could have done more to prevent or prepare for the flood. The fact that the Mississippi river had flooded before was a sign that there was a possibility of a worse situation occurring in the future. This should have acted as a warning sign for the agencies responsible for dealing with emergencies. Response The rains had increased in almost all areas whose water went to the Mississippi river in early April 1927. This was causing panic for the people living in the states around Mississippi river and government agencies were obliged to respond. The first thing that was done to respond to the possibility of a disaster was efforts to raise the levees. This was done by stacking sandbags on top of the levees to raise their height and make them stronger (Rubin & Public Entity Institute, 2007). The sandbags did little to help and the floodwaters overpowered the levees, hence breaking them. There was an attempt made by the Army Corps to save the city of New Orleans from the impact of water by blowing up levees at Caernarvon, but the water led to floods in St. Bernard Parish. The water rushed into plantations, washing away people, homes and crops. The floods caused great loss of lives and left a huge number of internally displaced individuals who needed help. The government's only way of response was by using public and private agencies to deliver relief services to the victims. This was because there was no established disaster response agency. The American National Red Cross was the main agency that was mandated to give relief services to the refugees and all the people affected by the floods. In addition, the President at that time, appealed to the public to contribute to a public fund that would be used by the Red Cross as aid in the distribution of relief services. The government also formed the Mississippi Valley Flood Disaster Red Cross Committee led by Herbert Hoover to help in dealing with the flood (Thornton, 2007). This committee took up the responsibility of coordinating the relief efforts being implemented by the Red Cross. During the period following the flood, the Red Cross aided the displaced by building them camps and giving them food, medical care, clothing and water. American Coast guards also participated in the rescue operations by using boats to rescue those trapped on high grounds like bridges, by the floods. Recovery After a disaster has happened, there has to be actions taken to help in restoring normalcy in the affected areas and the country at large. These activities form the recovery process in a comprehensive emergency management program. The floodwaters subsided in July 1927 and it was the responsibility of the government to help the affected citizens return to their normal lives. The Red Cross helped the people to build homes in areas that were safer (Rubin & Public Entity Risk Institute, 2007). They also continued to give the refugees food and water relief. In addition, the Red Cross also gave the people seeds and farm implements to help them rebuild their farms, which had been destroyed, by the floods. Basic household items were also given to the people to make their lives easier. Herbert Hoover, the chairperson of the Mississippi Valley Flood Disaster Red Cross Committee, persuaded the affected states to join state reconstruction corporations, which would help in rebuilding the states' public facilities. The banks were also urged to provide loans to the people especially farmers who needed the money to buy seeds and farm equipment. In terms of protecting the people from similar flooding effects in later years, the Army Corps put in the 'Jadwin' plan to make changes to the levee policy that had perceivably failed (Barry, 1997). They built thicker and higher levees along the banks of the Mississippi river. They also built floodways and reservoirs on the tributaries of the main river in order to prevent the increase of water as seen before. The Army Corps also built cutoffs, which reduced the height of floodwaters significantly. The actions taken after the great Mississippi flood of 1927 have helped in preventing the occurrence of such a disaster in other years. Cultural, Political and economical effects of the Great Mississippi flood Cultural The aftermath of the Great Mississippi flood is known to have caused a great impact on the African American people. The cultural effects of the flood was felt when African Americans moved to the Northern states. In the southern states, African Americans worked as casual laborers and they felt oppressed. Having no resources to protect themselves from the effects of the flood, they were the most affected. In fact, it is believed that the floods at St. Bernard Parish were planned in order to save other people in New Orleans. The Great Mississippi flood is seen as one of the factors that contributed to the Great Migration. Political In terms of the political effects of the flood, it was used by some people to gain popularity in the political arena. Herbert Hoover, who became the chairperson of the Mississippi Valley Flood Disaster Red Cross Committee, seized the opportunity to prove to the people that he was a viable presidential candidate. His actions during the response and recovery periods of the flood, gave him the national recognition he wanted to enter politics. He was elected president based on the rescue operations during the flood. He later lost his seat four years later, because of the ill treatment of African Americans in refugee camps. Economic Economically, the Great Mississippi floods caused great losses for the people especially the farmers. Farmland was destroyed causing and it was hard for the farmers to start all over again. Banks were urged to give loans to farmers so that they could purchase farm equipment and seeds to get farming back to track. Parallels between The Great Mississippi flood and Hurricane Katrina Similarities In conclusion, the Great Mississippi flood of 1927 and Hurricane Katrina are considered as some of the worst natural disasters that have rocked the United States in the 20th and 21st centuries respectively. One of the similarities between these disasters is that they caused great damage and negative impacts on New Orleans. These disasters caused a great number of fatalities as well as leaving others homeless. Hurricane Katrina had worse effects as it left many people missing and caused more deaths. Both calamities can be termed as natural disasters, which caused massive flooding and destruction of farmland. Another major similarity in both disasters is the formation of committees to manage the rebuilding of the states. In 1927, the committee was named the Citizens Flood Relief Committee while that of 2005 was called, Bring New Orleans Back Committee (Lal, 2007). These committees are made up of elite people and rich businesspersons without the inclusion of the poor affected families. In addition, the preparedness of the government in responding to both disasters was questionable and inadequate. In both situations, the government had received warnings that a disaster was imminent but it did not respond in an efficient way. Other major similarities were also noted in the wake of both disasters. These were largely, according to the majority, due to prejudicial policies that discriminated according to race and/or economic status. In most cases, the voices of the business elite were heard when it came to the distribution of resources in both catastrophes, whereas the majority were not given a chance. In both disasters, racism was experienced to an extent that fingers were pointed towards organizations such as the Red Cross and FEMA citing poor services especially to the blacks. In addition to this, the aftermath of the disasters saw looting by the predominantly black communities, thereby leading to actions by the ruling elite to enact undue, and often lethal, force to calm the angered masses. Finally, both disasters led to poorly organized food and financial compensation for the flood victims, another factor noted to have been biased by racial and economic divides. Differences A major difference between the Great Mississippi flood and Hurricane Katrina is the recovery process. During the period following the Great flood, the United States was still a growing economy. This meant that the people could rebuild their homes more easily as they were easily constructed and made of cheaper materials. In addition, infrastructure was not very developed and the destruction allowed for the building of better-improved infrastructure (Thornton, 2007). On the contrary, in 2005, the United States was an already established economy that was experiencing challenges in dealing with world economic problems. The people had a difficult time rebuilding their homes and more finances were required to help them get back to their normal lives. Conclusively, the destruction of infrastructure also meant that, the government had to acquire more funds to rebuild the city of New Orleans. Other major differences have been attributed to the development of the United States into the superpower that it is today. Consequently, the Great Mississippi flood occurred at a time that nation handled the black population differently from that when Katrina hit. In 1927, the controlling forces had to keep the black community in areas that were adversely affected, thereby avoiding them from going to other lesser-affected areas. When Katrina hit, on the other hand, it was observed that blacks and the less fortunate citizens were not forced to stay behind but it was difficult for them to leave due to inadequate and expensive forms of evacuation. In essence, Katrina brought out the underlying differences between the working-class families and the less fortunate members of the society in a more defined manner when compared to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927.
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An essay on The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927
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An Essay On The Great Mississippi Flood Of 1927

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              The Great Mississippi flood is cited in contexts as one of the greatest and most devastating disasters in the history of the U. S. The flood was caused by heavy rainfall that caused havoc in the areas around the Mississippi River. The rains lasted a period of approximately two months from April to June. The tributaries of the Mississippi river were also flooded causing disastrous results in Kansas, Oklahoma, Illinois and Kentucky. The floodwaters from the Mississippi river had great impacts on different states causing numerous deaths and covering large plantations. The swelling waters swept away many houses and other important property. The effects were so adverse that it became known as the great Mississippi flood of 1927.
             
             
              A comprehensive emergency management program is a combination of all aspects related to hazards and disasters, which need an emergency response. The program consists of four phases namely, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery (Bullock, Coppola &Haddow, 2008)). The discussion below focuses on the great Mississippi flood in terms of a comprehensive emergency management perspective.
             
              Mitigation is a process of identifying and performing actions that can help prevent or reduce the occurrence of an emergency. These actions will also help in greatly reducing the effects of an emergency. The Mississippi river had been known to burst its banks severally and the government had taken action to prevent the occurrence of floods in later years. There was the creation of the Mississippi River Commission whose role was to assess the flooding problem caused by the river and come up with lasting solutions (Barry, 1997). In addition, there was the formation of the Weather Bureau, which was responsible for assessing weather conditions and giving reliable weather forecasts to warn the people and the government on the likeliness of a flood.
             
              The American Army Corps of Engineers was also delegated the work of designing a lasting solution for the floodwaters. The Corps created a 'levees only' policy that focused on building levees along the Mississippi river to protect the people around it (Rubin & Public Entity Institute, 2007). This was done along the lower Mississippi river, for all the six states where the river passed through. The building of levees was seen as an adequate measure to prevent raging waters from breaking into the land where people lived or even farmland. The Army Corps of Engineers were opposed to the idea of building floodways and spillways arguing that levees were the only way to prevent the occurrence of a flood. The levees were said to be strong enough to hold any amount of pressure from the water. On the other hand, the Army Corps reported that if the water pressure and volume increased, the river channel would become deeper reducing the pressure placed on the levees.
             
              Preparedness
             
              All countries and government agencies have to make plans of how to handle an emergency. The occurrence of any disaster requires the implementation of prior plans in terms of rescue operations and saving people's lives. In preparation for an emergency like the great Mississippi flood, the government had set up the American National Red Cross, whose responsibility was to aid in rescue operations (Thornton, 2007). The agency also had the responsibility of distributing food supplies and water to the affected people. In addition, the American National Red Cross personnel were trained to offer the required medical aid to the people. Different plans had also been made to collect funds that would be used to respond to an emergency. The U. S Army Corps of Engineers were also well trained for evacuation missions to rescue the affected people.
             
              The government also had created a way to warn the people incase of a disaster. News of a disaster would be disseminated to people using news channels and other media channels. This would act as a warning for people to move from the affected areas. These actions might seem like efficient ways to deal with a flood, but many people argue that not enough was done to prepare for the Great Mississippi flood (Lal, 2007). There have been many arguments that the government could have done more to prevent or prepare for the flood. The fact that the Mississippi river had flooded before was a sign that there was a possibility of a worse situation occurring in the future. This should have acted as a warning sign for the agencies responsible for dealing with emergencies.
             
              Response
             
              The rains had increased in almost all areas whose water went to the Mississippi river in early April 1927. This was causing panic for the people living in the states around Mississippi river and government agencies were obliged to respond. The first thing that was done to respond to the possibility of a disaster was efforts to raise the levees. This was done by stacking sandbags on top of the levees to raise their height and make them stronger (Rubin & Public Entity Institute, 2007). The sandbags did little to help and the floodwaters overpowered the levees, hence breaking them.
             
              There was an attempt made by the Army Corps to save the city of New Orleans from the impact of water by blowing up levees at Caernarvon, but the water led to floods in St. Bernard Parish. The water rushed into plantations, washing away people, homes and crops. The floods caused great loss of lives and left a huge number of internally displaced individuals who needed help.
             
              The government's only way of response was by using public and private agencies to deliver relief services to the victims. This was because there was no established disaster response agency. The American National Red Cross was the main agency that was mandated to give relief services to the refugees and all the people affected by the floods. In addition, the President at that time, appealed to the public to contribute to a public fund that would be used by the Red Cross as aid in the distribution of relief services. The government also formed the Mississippi Valley Flood Disaster Red Cross Committee led by Herbert Hoover to help in dealing with the flood (Thornton, 2007). This committee took up the responsibility of coordinating the relief efforts being implemented by the Red Cross. During the period following the flood, the Red Cross aided the displaced by building them camps and giving them food, medical care, clothing and water. American Coast guards also participated in the rescue operations by using boats to rescue those trapped on high grounds like bridges, by the floods.
             
              Recovery
             
              After a disaster has happened, there has to be actions taken to help in restoring normalcy in the affected areas and the country at large. These activities form the recovery process in a comprehensive emergency management program. The floodwaters subsided in July 1927 and it was the responsibility of the government to help the affected citizens return to their normal lives. The Red Cross helped the people to build homes in areas that were safer (Rubin & Public Entity Risk Institute, 2007). They also continued to give the refugees food and water relief. In addition, the Red Cross also gave the people seeds and farm implements to help them rebuild their farms, which had been destroyed, by the floods. Basic household items were also given to the people to make their lives easier. Herbert Hoover, the chairperson of the Mississippi Valley Flood Disaster Red Cross Committee, persuaded the affected states to join state reconstruction corporations, which would help in rebuilding the states' public facilities. The banks were also urged to provide loans to the people especially farmers who needed the money to buy seeds and farm equipment.
             
              In terms of protecting the people from similar flooding effects in later years, the Army Corps put in the 'Jadwin' plan to make changes to the levee policy that had perceivably failed (Barry, 1997). They built thicker and higher levees along the banks of the Mississippi river. They also built floodways and reservoirs on the tributaries of the main river in order to prevent the increase of water as seen before. The Army Corps also built cutoffs, which reduced the height of floodwaters significantly. The actions taken after the great Mississippi flood of 1927 have helped in preventing the occurrence of such a disaster in other years.
             
              Cultural, Political and economical effects of the Great Mississippi flood
             
              Cultural
             
              The aftermath of the Great Mississippi flood is known to have caused a great impact on the African American people. The cultural effects of the flood was felt when African Americans moved to the Northern states. In the southern states, African Americans worked as casual laborers and they felt oppressed. Having no resources to protect themselves from the effects of the flood, they were the most affected. In fact, it is believed that the floods at St. Bernard Parish were planned in order to save other people in New Orleans. The Great Mississippi flood is seen as one of the factors that contributed to the Great Migration.
             
              Political
             
              In terms of the political effects of the flood, it was used by some people to gain popularity in the political arena. Herbert Hoover, who became the chairperson of the Mississippi Valley Flood Disaster Red Cross Committee, seized the opportunity to prove to the people that he was a viable presidential candidate. His actions during the response and recovery periods of the flood, gave him the national recognition he wanted to enter politics. He was elected president based on the rescue operations during the flood. He later lost his seat four years later, because of the ill treatment of African Americans in refugee camps.
             
              Economic
             
              Economically, the Great Mississippi floods caused great losses for the people especially the farmers. Farmland was destroyed causing and it was hard for the farmers to start all over again. Banks were urged to give loans to farmers so that they could purchase farm equipment and seeds to get farming back to track.
             
              Parallels between The Great Mississippi flood and Hurricane Katrina
             
              Similarities
             
              In conclusion, the Great Mississippi flood of 1927 and Hurricane Katrina are considered as some of the worst natural disasters that have rocked the United States in the 20th and 21st centuries respectively. One of the similarities between these disasters is that they caused great damage and negative impacts on New Orleans. These disasters caused a great number of fatalities as well as leaving others homeless. Hurricane Katrina had worse effects as it left many people missing and caused more deaths. Both calamities can be termed as natural disasters, which caused massive flooding and destruction of farmland.
             
              Another major similarity in both disasters is the formation of committees to manage the rebuilding of the states. In 1927, the committee was named the Citizens Flood Relief Committee while that of 2005 was called, Bring New Orleans Back Committee (Lal, 2007). These committees are made up of elite people and rich businesspersons without the inclusion of the poor affected families. In addition, the preparedness of the government in responding to both disasters was questionable and inadequate. In both situations, the government had received warnings that a disaster was imminent but it did not respond in an efficient way.
             
              Other major similarities were also noted in the wake of both disasters. These were largely, according to the majority, due to prejudicial policies that discriminated according to race and/or economic status. In most cases, the voices of the business elite were heard when it came to the distribution of resources in both catastrophes, whereas the majority were not given a chance. In both disasters, racism was experienced to an extent that fingers were pointed towards organizations such as the Red Cross and FEMA citing poor services especially to the blacks. In addition to this, the aftermath of the disasters saw looting by the predominantly black communities, thereby leading to actions by the ruling elite to enact undue, and often lethal, force to calm the angered masses. Finally, both disasters led to poorly organized food and financial compensation for the flood victims, another factor noted to have been biased by racial and economic divides.
             
              Differences
             
              A major difference between the Great Mississippi flood and Hurricane Katrina is the recovery process. During the period following the Great flood, the United States was still a growing economy. This meant that the people could rebuild their homes more easily as they were easily constructed and made of cheaper materials. In addition, infrastructure was not very developed and the destruction allowed for the building of better-improved infrastructure (Thornton, 2007). On the contrary, in 2005, the United States was an already established economy that was experiencing challenges in dealing with world economic problems. The people had a difficult time rebuilding their homes and more finances were required to help them get back to their normal lives. Conclusively, the destruction of infrastructure also meant that, the government had to acquire more funds to rebuild the city of New Orleans.
             
              Other major differences have been attributed to the development of the United States into the superpower that it is today. Consequently, the Great Mississippi flood occurred at a time that nation handled the black population differently from that when Katrina hit. In 1927, the controlling forces had to keep the black community in areas that were adversely affected, thereby avoiding them from going to other lesser-affected areas. When Katrina hit, on the other hand, it was observed that blacks and the less fortunate citizens were not forced to stay behind but it was difficult for them to leave due to inadequate and expensive forms of evacuation. In essence, Katrina brought out the underlying differences between the working-class families and the less fortunate members of the society in a more defined manner when compared to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927.
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