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The techniques used in evaluating effectiveness of teachers have changed over time together with the definition of effective teaching. These changes have been brought by increased federal and state supervision of accountability of teachers both in schools and in class. Most researchers concede that good teaching is crucial and a key factor in improving students performance. However, researchers have not agreed on the best way of measuring teachers' effectiveness, because there is no consensus on what constitutes an effective tutor. Some of the traditional methods that have been employed in measuring teachers' effectiveness include classroom observations meant to compare tutoring practices against certain standard measures (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009). Researchers in education have proposed an integrated approach that measures teachers' effectiveness from three related angles. Under this model, a teacher's effectiveness is assessed by measuring inputs, output, and processes. Inputs refer to the individual factors a teacher possesses, and they are measured with respect to his/her background, expectations, belief, content knowledge, experience, educational achievement, and licensure and certification (Strong, 2009). These factors are sometimes popularly referred to as teachers' qualities especially in the 'No Child Left Behind Program' that demanded high credentials and qualifications among teachers in the United States. The process is a measure of assessing teachers' effectiveness, and it concentrates on the interaction between students and instructors in a classroom set up. Output on the other hand, refers to the outcomes of classroom processes like graduation rates, students' attitudes as well as their achievements and behaviors (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009). A report daubed "The Widget Effect" released in 2009 examined the effectiveness of teachers in fourteen American school districts. This report concluded that the system that is used in evaluating the effectiveness of teachers provides meager information on how performance varies from one tutor to another. The most significant finding in this report was that ninety eight percent of American teachers were ranked as satisfactory in term of their effectiveness. This saw education analysts conclude that assessing effectiveness of teachers solely based on classroom observation is a flawed approach (Castle & Shaklee, 2006). States and school districts in the United States have created databases that enable the tracking of performance of students from one year to another. In addition, these databases have also enabled the comparison of students studying the same courses, but located in different classes. A careful examination of these databases confirmed the doubts in the mind of many parents, students, teachers, and policymakers that such an assessment approach is faulty. This data revealed that the ability of teachers to enhance student growth and achievement varied significantly (Killen, 2006). In trying to develop a comprehensive system, some school districts in Denver, New York, Washington DC, and Houston have started using the students' annual test score method as a measure of evaluating teachers' effectiveness (Wilkerson & Lang, 2007). However, many policy makers have maintained that the use of test scores in evaluating the effectiveness of teachers has several limitations. One of the shortcomings of this approach is that the scores are obtained from few subjects, which have mandatory annual testing. This type of evaluation has also been criticized for failing to provide indicators that can be used to improve teachers' training. Use of test scores as a method of evaluating teachers' effectiveness only determines whether or not a particular teacher is effective, but it does not reveal the techniques he uses to improve student performance. Another shortcoming of using test scores to assess teachers' effectiveness is that this method can lead to a situation whereby the tutors focus on test skills at the expense of crucial academic content (Campbell, 2004). Some researchers have recommended various ways that can be used to improve effectiveness among teachers, but they have not given efficient ways of measuring this variable. The methods proposed by these researchers include the adoption of a comprehensive evaluation system, training of evaluators and administrators in evaluating the performance of teachers, integration of the policy and evaluation system, and frequently assessing all tutors, whether tenured or non-tenured (Mohan & Hull, 2005). The increasing consideration accorded to test scores as a method of assessing teachers' effectiveness is due to lack of comprehensive alternative ways that can provide valid and reliable information. Currently, direct observation still remains the most established method of assessing teachers' effectiveness in a classroom set up, despite the fact that various reports have indicated that this method of evaluation is flawed (Evers & Walberg, 2004). An effective teacher has been defined based on four aspects: firstly, an effective teacher is supposed to expect high performance among students. Secondly, an effective instructor inculcates positive attitude oriented, social and academic outcomes for all students. An effective educator is also supposed to create an environment that encourages participative learning. Finally, an effective tutor works in partnership with other teachers. Although the attributes of an effective teacher have been well defined, reliable and valid methods that can be use to assess these qualities still lack (Seldin, 2009). Currently, classroom observation and test scores are the most frequently used methods in evaluating the performance of students in the United States. Both of these methods have their shortcomings, and this has made some researchers to recommend an integrated approach that uses output, input, and process to evaluate teachers. However, more research is still needed in this area in order to generate a reliable and valid method of assessing teachers' effectiveness (Ingvarson & Hattie, 2008). Research Design This research will seek to collect data from students, teachers and states' departments of education. Data related to student and teachers will be collected from two high schools in a given school district. Ten teachers and forty students will be included in the survey from both schools. Purposive sampling will be used to select teachers and students who will participate in the study. Five teachers with classes registering good performance in their subjects will be selected, while the other five will be tutors with students registering poor performance in their subject. Twenty students from both schools who have performed well in the past one year will be included in the study, while the other twenty will be learners who have performed poorly. The main data collection instrument that will be used in this study will be closed ended questionnaires. Additional secondary data will also be obtained from the state's department of education records. Different closed ended questionnaires will be administered to both teachers and students. The questionnaires administered to students will capture the perception they have about the teaching styles used by their teachers, learners' attitude toward their instructors, and students' levels of satisfaction. Those administered to tutors will seek to determine the factors blamed for the poor or good performance by their students. The secondary data will be obtained by examining the records of teachers' evaluation related to these two schools in the last one year. The grounded theory or constant comparison will be used as the main method of data analysis, where the data collected will be placed into different categories. These categories will then be analyzed to generate patterns and trends, which will be presented in a tabular format.
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Assessing Teachers Effectiveness Essay
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Assessing Teachers Effectiveness Essay

Words: 1192    Pages: 4    Paragraphs: 9    Sentences: 52    Read Time: 04:20
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              The techniques used in evaluating effectiveness of teachers have changed over time together with the definition of effective teaching. These changes have been brought by increased federal and state supervision of accountability of teachers both in schools and in class. Most researchers concede that good teaching is crucial and a key factor in improving students performance. However, researchers have not agreed on the best way of measuring teachers' effectiveness, because there is no consensus on what constitutes an effective tutor. Some of the traditional methods that have been employed in measuring teachers' effectiveness include classroom observations meant to compare tutoring practices against certain standard measures (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009).
              Researchers in education have proposed an integrated approach that measures teachers' effectiveness from three related angles. Under this model, a teacher's effectiveness is assessed by measuring inputs, output, and processes. Inputs refer to the individual factors a teacher possesses, and they are measured with respect to his/her background, expectations, belief, content knowledge, experience, educational achievement, and licensure and certification (Strong, 2009). These factors are sometimes popularly referred to as teachers' qualities especially in the 'No Child Left Behind Program' that demanded high credentials and qualifications among teachers in the United States. The process is a measure of assessing teachers' effectiveness, and it concentrates on the interaction between students and instructors in a classroom set up. Output on the other hand, refers to the outcomes of classroom processes like graduation rates, students' attitudes as well as their achievements and behaviors (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009).
              A report daubed "The Widget Effect" released in 2009 examined the effectiveness of teachers in fourteen American school districts. This report concluded that the system that is used in evaluating the effectiveness of teachers provides meager information on how performance varies from one tutor to another. The most significant finding in this report was that ninety eight percent of American teachers were ranked as satisfactory in term of their effectiveness. This saw education analysts conclude that assessing effectiveness of teachers solely based on classroom observation is a flawed approach (Castle & Shaklee, 2006). States and school districts in the United States have created databases that enable the tracking of performance of students from one year to another. In addition, these databases have also enabled the comparison of students studying the same courses, but located in different classes. A careful examination of these databases confirmed the doubts in the mind of many parents, students, teachers, and policymakers that such an assessment approach is faulty. This data revealed that the ability of teachers to enhance student growth and achievement varied significantly (Killen, 2006).
              In trying to develop a comprehensive system, some school districts in Denver, New York, Washington DC, and Houston have started using the students' annual test score method as a measure of evaluating teachers' effectiveness (Wilkerson & Lang, 2007). However, many policy makers have maintained that the use of test scores in evaluating the effectiveness of teachers has several limitations. One of the shortcomings of this approach is that the scores are obtained from few subjects, which have mandatory annual testing. This type of evaluation has also been criticized for failing to provide indicators that can be used to improve teachers' training. Use of test scores as a method of evaluating teachers' effectiveness only determines whether or not a particular teacher is effective, but it does not reveal the techniques he uses to improve student performance. Another shortcoming of using test scores to assess teachers' effectiveness is that this method can lead to a situation whereby the tutors focus on test skills at the expense of crucial academic content (Campbell, 2004).
              Some researchers have recommended various ways that can be used to improve effectiveness among teachers, but they have not given efficient ways of measuring this variable. The methods proposed by these researchers include the adoption of a comprehensive evaluation system, training of evaluators and administrators in evaluating the performance of teachers, integration of the policy and evaluation system, and frequently assessing all tutors, whether tenured or non-tenured (Mohan & Hull, 2005).
              The increasing consideration accorded to test scores as a method of assessing teachers' effectiveness is due to lack of comprehensive alternative ways that can provide valid and reliable information. Currently, direct observation still remains the most established method of assessing teachers' effectiveness in a classroom set up, despite the fact that various reports have indicated that this method of evaluation is flawed (Evers & Walberg, 2004). An effective teacher has been defined based on four aspects: firstly, an effective teacher is supposed to expect high performance among students. Secondly, an effective instructor inculcates positive attitude oriented, social and academic outcomes for all students. An effective educator is also supposed to create an environment that encourages participative learning. Finally, an effective tutor works in partnership with other teachers. Although the attributes of an effective teacher have been well defined, reliable and valid methods that can be use to assess these qualities still lack (Seldin, 2009).
              Currently, classroom observation and test scores are the most frequently used methods in evaluating the performance of students in the United States. Both of these methods have their shortcomings, and this has made some researchers to recommend an integrated approach that uses output, input, and process to evaluate teachers. However, more research is still needed in this area in order to generate a reliable and valid method of assessing teachers' effectiveness (Ingvarson & Hattie, 2008).
              Research Design
              This research will seek to collect data from students, teachers and states' departments of education. Data related to student and teachers will be collected from two high schools in a given school district. Ten teachers and forty students will be included in the survey from both schools. Purposive sampling will be used to select teachers and students who will participate in the study. Five teachers with classes registering good performance in their subjects will be selected, while the other five will be tutors with students registering poor performance in their subject. Twenty students from both schools who have performed well in the past one year will be included in the study, while the other twenty will be learners who have performed poorly.
              The main data collection instrument that will be used in this study will be closed ended questionnaires. Additional secondary data will also be obtained from the state's department of education records. Different closed ended questionnaires will be administered to both teachers and students. The questionnaires administered to students will capture the perception they have about the teaching styles used by their teachers, learners' attitude toward their instructors, and students' levels of satisfaction. Those administered to tutors will seek to determine the factors blamed for the poor or good performance by their students. The secondary data will be obtained by examining the records of teachers' evaluation related to these two schools in the last one year. The grounded theory or constant comparison will be used as the main method of data analysis, where the data collected will be placed into different categories. These categories will then be analyzed to generate patterns and trends, which will be presented in a tabular format.
Teacher Essay 
Works Cited

Campbell, R. J. (2004). Assessing teacher effectiveness: Developing a differentiated model. New Fetter Lane, London: Routlege.
Castle, S. & Shaklee, B. D. (2006). Assessing teacher performance: Performance-based assessment in teacher education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Evers, W. M. & Walberg, H. J. (2004). Testing student learning, evaluating teaching effectiveness. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Gay, L. R., Mills, G. M., & Airasian, P. (2009). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (9th edn.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Ingvarson, L. & Hattie, J. (2008). Assessing teachers for professional certification: The first decade of the national board for professional teaching standards. Bingley: Emerald JAI.
Killen, R. (2006). Effective teaching strategies. South Melbourne, VIC: Thomson Learning Australia.
Mohan, M. & Hull, R. E. (2005). Teaching effectiveness: Its meaning, assessment, and improvement. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Educational Technology Publications.
Seldin, P. (2009). Changing practices in evaluating teaching: A practical guide to improved faculty performance and promotion/tenure decisions. Bolton, MA: Anker Pub.
Strong, M. (2009). Effective teacher induction and mentoring: Assessing the evidence. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Wilkerson, J. R & Lang, W. S. (2007). Assessing teacher dispositions: Five standards-based steps to valid measurement using the DAATS model. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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