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On this first week I learned so much about how criminal law is evaluated, organized, and made. Also I learned about the English common law includes legislation, and a multitude of other legal norms that help on the evaluation of criminal laws, such as federal and state constitutions that are based on congress and state legislatures. It also includes how the lawmakers are made or changed by the judicial powers of review and how the judicial power interpret them. English common law in the past was based on the principle that the rulings made by the King's courts were made according to the common custom of the kingdom, as opposed to decisions made in local and manorial courts which judged by provincial laws and customs. Now in day this law is composed by law reports which are reported decision judges made in individual cases before court and these decision are the composition of the basis of the common law. These reports are the fundamental material about the history of critical institutions and processes of the English common law, and it is developed from ancient roots and early history and features. On the constitution on the tenth amendment, and part of the Bill of Rights, provides that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." The Guarantee Clause of Article 4 of the Constitution states that "The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government." These two provisions indicate states did not surrender their wide latitude to adopt a constitution, the fundamental documents of state law, when the U.S. Constitution was adopted. (Tocqueville: Book I Chapter 8.) Typically state constitutions talk about a wide group of issues understood by the states to be of plenty importance to be included in the constitution rather than in an ordinary bill. It often validated after the federal Constitution, they pointed out the structure of the state government typically establish a bill of rights, an executive branch headed by a governor and often one or more other officials, such as a lieutenant governor and state attorney general, a state legislature, and state courts, including a state supreme court which a few states have two high courts, one for civil cases, and the other for criminal cases. In addition, many other important issues may be included. Many state constitutions, contrasting the federal constitution, also begin with an invocation of God. The constitution of the United States divides the federal government into three branches: Legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch. The legislative branch is the one responsible to make laws, executive branch carries out laws and finally judicial branch is about evaluating laws. Judicial review is the power of a court to review the constitutionality of a bill, or to review an administrative regulation for stability with either a bill, an agreement, or the Constitution itself. Judicial interpretation is a theory or mode of thought that explains how the judiciary should interpret the law, particularly constitutional documents and legislation. The legislative branch plays a very important role on the evaluation of criminal laws because this branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together form the United States Congress. The Constitution allows Congress the individual authority to pass legislation and declare war, the right to confirm or reject many Presidential appointments, and substantial investigative powers. It has steps to follow to get laws and bills pass. The first step in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill to Congress, after being introduced, a bill is referred to the appropriate committee for review, moreover, the bill is first considered in a subcommittee, where it may be accepted, revised, or rejected entirely. If the members of the subcommittee agree to move a bill forward, it is reported to the full committee, where the process is repeated again. Throughout this stage of the process, the committees and subcommittees call hearings to investigate the advantages and flaws of the bill. If the full committee votes to approve the bill, it is reported to the floor of the House or Senate, and the majority party leadership decides when to place the bill on the calendar for consideration. If a bill is particularly pressing, it may be considered right away. When the bill comes up for consideration, the House has a very structured debate process, a bill must pass both houses of Congress before it goes to the President for consideration. If the President agrees substantially with the bill, he or she may sign it into law, and the bill is then printed. There are two other options that the President may exercise. If Congress is in session and the President takes no action within 10 days, the bill becomes law. If Congress delays before 10 days are up and the President takes no action, then the bill dies and Congress may not vote to override. This is called a pocket veto, and if Congress still wants to pass the legislation, they must begin the entire process.
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Criminal Law and English Common Law
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Criminal Law And English Common Law

Words: 855    Pages: 3    Paragraphs: 7    Sentences: 35    Read Time: 03:06
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              On this first week I learned so much about how criminal law is evaluated, organized, and made. Also I learned about the English common law includes legislation, and a multitude of other legal norms that help on the evaluation of criminal laws, such as federal and state constitutions that are based on congress and state legislatures. It also includes how the lawmakers are made or changed by the judicial powers of review and how the judicial power interpret them.
             
              English common law in the past was based on the principle that the rulings made by the King's courts were made according to the common custom of the kingdom, as opposed to decisions made in local and manorial courts which judged by provincial laws and customs. Now in day this law is composed by law reports which are reported decision judges made in individual cases before court and these decision are the composition of the basis of the common law. These reports are the fundamental material about the history of critical institutions and processes of the English common law, and it is developed from ancient roots and early history and features.
             
              On the constitution on the tenth amendment, and part of the Bill of Rights, provides that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. " The Guarantee Clause of Article 4 of the Constitution states that "The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government. " These two provisions indicate states did not surrender their wide latitude to adopt a constitution, the fundamental documents of state law, when the U. S. Constitution was adopted. (Tocqueville: Book I Chapter 8. )
             
              Typically state constitutions talk about a wide group of issues understood by the states to be of plenty importance to be included in the constitution rather than in an ordinary bill. It often validated after the federal Constitution, they pointed out the structure of the state government typically establish a bill of rights, an executive branch headed by a governor and often one or more other officials, such as a lieutenant governor and state attorney general, a state legislature, and state courts, including a state supreme court which a few states have two high courts, one for civil cases, and the other for criminal cases. In addition, many other important issues may be included. Many state constitutions, contrasting the federal constitution, also begin with an invocation of God.
             
              The constitution of the United States divides the federal government into three branches: Legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch. The legislative branch is the one responsible to make laws, executive branch carries out laws and finally judicial branch is about evaluating laws.
             
              Judicial review is the power of a court to review the constitutionality of a bill, or to review an administrative regulation for stability with either a bill, an agreement, or the Constitution itself. Judicial interpretation is a theory or mode of thought that explains how the judiciary should interpret the law, particularly constitutional documents and legislation.
             
              The legislative branch plays a very important role on the evaluation of criminal laws because this branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together form the United States Congress. The Constitution allows Congress the individual authority to pass legislation and declare war, the right to confirm or reject many Presidential appointments, and substantial investigative powers. It has steps to follow to get laws and bills pass. The first step in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill to Congress, after being introduced, a bill is referred to the appropriate committee for review, moreover, the bill is first considered in a subcommittee, where it may be accepted, revised, or rejected entirely. If the members of the subcommittee agree to move a bill forward, it is reported to the full committee, where the process is repeated again. Throughout this stage of the process, the committees and subcommittees call hearings to investigate the advantages and flaws of the bill. If the full committee votes to approve the bill, it is reported to the floor of the House or Senate, and the majority party leadership decides when to place the bill on the calendar for consideration. If a bill is particularly pressing, it may be considered right away. When the bill comes up for consideration, the House has a very structured debate process, a bill must pass both houses of Congress before it goes to the President for consideration. If the President agrees substantially with the bill, he or she may sign it into law, and the bill is then printed. There are two other options that the President may exercise. If Congress is in session and the President takes no action within 10 days, the bill becomes law. If Congress delays before 10 days are up and the President takes no action, then the bill dies and Congress may not vote to override. This is called a pocket veto, and if Congress still wants to pass the legislation, they must begin the entire process.
Law Essay 
Constitution Day 2013: The Legislative Branch - National Constitution Center. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://constitutioncenter.org/learn/hall-pass/constitution-day-2013-the-legislative-branch/

CT2Learn :: How Our Laws Are Made. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ct2learn.com/els/index.php/member-home/learning-resources/resources/procedural-criminal-law/how-our-laws-are-made/

CT2Learn :: How the U.S. Government is Organized. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ct2learn.com/els/index.php/member-home/learning-resources/resources/procedural-criminal-law/how-us-government-organized/

CT2Learn :: Supreme Court and Constitutional Interpretation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ct2learn.com/els/index.php/member-home/learning-resources/resources/procedural-criminal-law/supreme-court-and-constitutional-interpretation/

Title 13 Arizona Criminal Code, Annotated and Abridged Student Edition. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ct2learn.com/els/index.php/member-home/cj/ebooks/az-penal-code/

Tocqueville: Book I Chapter 8. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/DETOC/1_ch08.htm
Video Glossary: Judicial Review. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZH67Q17y-NY
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